13 terms

Period 5: Vocab Quiz #3

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Enlightenment
18th century movement led by French intellectuals who advocated reason as the universal source of knowledge and truth; critiqued the role that religion played in public life, placed importance on reason as opposed to revelation; involved natural rights and the social contract
Natural Rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders.
Suffrage
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
social contract
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
nationalism
Sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs, and territory. Linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations; the Germans, Italians, Filipino, and Argentinians all supported nationalism in the 1750-1900 time period
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
French Revolution
1789-1799. Period of political and social upheaval in France, during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
feminism
The belief that men and women should be equal politically, economically, and socially
anti-colonial movements
Colonists protested for independence from European powers and were often violent and nationalistic; examples: Indian Revolt of 1857 & Boxer Rebellion in Qing China
Boxer Rebellion
a Chinese secret organization called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists led an uprising in northern China against the spread of Western and Japanese influence there.
Ghost Dance
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good. (an anti-colonial rebellion in North America)
Sepoy Rebellion
1857-1858, Sepoys (Indian soldiers) rebelled against the British government after a rumor they were using cow fat in their guns (cows are sacred in India). The East India company brutally put down the rebellion. After this, the British government dissolved the East India company and took over the rule of India directly.