Chapter 1 ESL

Additive Bilingualism
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Terms in this set (22)
An alternative label for ELLs that draws attention to the other language or languages in the learners' linguistic repertoires, situates these learners in a continuum of bilingual development, and emphasizes that a fundamental goal of programs for these learners should be to help them attain high levels of proficiency in both their home language and English.
language majority studentDescribes a student who is a native speaker of the standard language variety spoken by the dominant group of a given society. In the United States, the term covers students who speak standard English.language minority studentDescribes a student who is not a native speaker of the language spoken by the dominant group of a given society. In the United States the term covers all students who speak languages other than standard English. Sometimes rendered as language minoritized student to emphasize the unequal power structures in society that create dominant and minoritized groups.multilingual learnerA term used to capture the broad range of students who are bi/multilingual or who are learning, and learning through, more than one language.multi-tiered systems of supportA model or approach to instruction that provides increasingly intensive and individualized levels of support for academics (e.g., response to intervention or RTI) and for behavior (e.g., Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports or PBIS).pluralist discoursesDiscourses that recognize ELLs' home languages and cultures as rich resources for helping them learn English and academic content and that strive to help them develop high levels of proficiency and literacy in both languages (also called multilingual discourses).redesignationThe reclassification of a student from English language learner (ELL), or limited English proficient (LEP), to fluent English proficient (FEP), based on criteria established by a school district or state.response to interventionPolicies in which struggling children are given intensive assistance and evaluated for possible special-education services only if they fail to respond.sequential bilingualismThe development of proficiency in a second language after proficiency has been developed in the first language.simultaneous bilingualismbilingualism in which both languages are acquired from infancyspecial educationspecially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of an individual recognized as exceptionalsubtractive bilingualismthe acquisition of a second language that replaces the native languagesuperdiversityA term used to describe diversity across and within immigrant and ethnic groups; includes a range of factors beyond language and ethnicity (e.g., race, education level, country of origin, migration history, socioeconomic status).