44 terms

UVM HSF 1 Lymph and Lymphatic vessels

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Right lymphatic duct
everything above nipple line on R side and strait up
Thoracic duct
drains all else
What are the functions of they lympatic system
CV- retures excess fluid and protein to blood
Immune- lymph to nodes
Digestive- fat from small intestine to blood
Where are lymph capillaries
everywhere except CNS
Lymph in comparison with blood capillary
Larger diameter, no pericytes, thin porous basal membrane, no erythrocytes

Histologically, RBCs in blood vessels
Lymph capillaries structure
greater access than blood capillaries, access for metastasis, and pathogens
Valves in lymph
allow one way flow, and many WBC's
Lacteals
lymphatic capillaries in intestinal villi

provide drainage and transport of lipids to blood strean all drain to the thoracic duct
Major lymphatic vessels
Thoracic duct, fed by Chyle cistern and Descending thoracic lympatic trunk
Right lymphatic duct, goes to R subclavian
peristalsis
sequential contractions of lymphatic vessels by smooth muscles moves lymph
Lymphangitis
infection of they lymph vessels extends up lymph vessel from an abscess
Antigen
Substance that elicits an immune response

Binds to antibodies
Antibody: immunoglobulin
Binds to antigens
Present in blood lymph secretion, and on B-cells
Inactivates antigen directly or tags Ag for inactivation

In lymph
Plasma cells
are a component of lymph, antibody factories, large golgi app.
Resting T or B cell hist
mostly nucleus in cell
Effector B cell hist
more RER for creating immunoglobulin
Major histocompatability complex MHC
also called HLA

Surface proteins that help immune system distinguis self from nonself
Two classes MHC
MHC 1 and 2
MHC1
present on essentially all nucleated cells
MHC2
Found on antigen presenting cells
Antigen presenting cells APCs
engage in antigen processing

Present antigens as peptide MHC II complexes to T cells
APCs
macrophages, dendritic cells, Bcells

Mobile cells

Not only site for antigen processing other cells can use MHC I
Antigen processing
Phagocytize antigen
digest antigen in lysosome
present small bit in MHC molecules on surface of cell
MHC I
has peptide binding sites very variable
MHC Peptide binding site
presents antigen
Dendritic cells
present antigens, facilitates interaction by increasing SA with processes so many cells can interact w/ T cells
Langerhans cell
pale cell in epithelium, need to be at sites of likely infection
Lymphocytes
T cells
B cells
NK cells

Large nucleus dark purple with light purple ring
T cells
Born in bone marrow, mature in Thymus TTT
Antigen receptor : t cell receptor TCR
B cells
Born in bone marrow, mature in Bone marrow BBB
Antigen receptor: surface immunoglobulin
NK cells
Natural Killer cells
Lymph Nodes
Bean shaped encapsulated
Most 1mm-1cm
Not uniformly distributed
Filter lymph
Facilitate immune responses
Lymph nodes
Afferent feeds into node from capsule side
Efferent leaves lymphatic via hilum

is fed by artery and has vein drainage in hilum

Interaction of blood and lymphocytes
Parts of a lymph node
Capsule outside
Cortex
Trabeculae flap going toward medulla
Sinus strait flap of CTfollowing capsule
Paracortex
Medulla
Medullary cords
Follicle on edges near capsule
Hilum feeds into medullary cords
Follicle
lighter in center darker in periphery

B cells,
Para cortex
area without follicles, lots of lyphocyte less cytoplasm

Mostly T cells
Medullary cords
lighter in color, less lymphocytes
Secondary follicle
Mostly B cells
Lymphadenopathy
swollen glands can be seen in cat scratch disease
Lymphatic drainage of Upper Extremity
Lots of lymphatics in the hands.

Infraclavicular: deltopectoral node near cephalic vein

Lateral : humeral axillary nodes near axillary vein and basilic vein

Epitrochlear : cubital nodes near median cubital vein, cephalic vein, and basilic vein
Axillary lymph nodes
lateral
Central: deep within axillae
Subscapular: posterior
Pectoral: anterior
Supraclavicular
Apical

all drain toward R lymphatic duct
superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Horizontal group
Vertical group
Lymphatic drainage of Lower Extremity
Popliteal nodes near popliteal vein on posterior of leg

Superficial inguinal nodes
Deep inguinal lymph nodes
External iliac nodes near femoral vein superior to inguinal ligament

Deep inguinal lymph nodes, deep to and on either side of inguinal ligament