Psyc 3310 Chapter 2 Review Questions

Explain these concepts and how they are important to dev psychology: Evolution, survival of the fittest, natural selection, and human mate selection.
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Terms in this set (20)
Evolution - shaping of physical features and decisions over time.

Survival of the fittest - survivors passed down their genes making fit offspring.

Natural Selection - adaptation to the environment in terms of reproduction

Human mate selection - Attraction of opposite sex. Women want secure/older men, and Men want younger/more beautiful woman.
Explain these terms and how they are related to dev psychology: interaction, allele, homozygous, heterozygous, mitosis, meiosis, fertilization, epistasis, modifier genes, environmental influences on gene expression, active and passive genes, epigenetic view, bidirectional, evocative view of genetic influences, linkage analysis, methylation, genotype, phenotype, monozygotic, dizygotic, organogenesis, and life-support systems.
Interaction - Combination of two or more factors resulting in a unique combo

Allele - alternate form of a gene, or singular version. One gene = 2 alleles, one from mom and one from dad.

Homozygous - Alleles for trait from each parent are alike.

Heterozygous - Alleles for trait from each parent are different.

Mitosis - splitting/duplicating of a cell

Meiosis - Further splitting of cells to make single pair sex cells. 46 to 23 chromosomes.

Fertilization - sperm and egg combine.

Epistasis - the suppression of the effect of one gene by another.

Modifier genes - exert influence indirectly by affecting expression of other genes

Environmental influences on gene expression - Waiter = nicer attitude, more tips

Active Gene - Encourages people to seek out experiences compatible with their inherited tendencies.

Passive Gene - Parents create home environment with genetic characteristics that encourage expression of tendencies.

Evocative Gene - Peoples inherited tendencies evoke certain environmental responses

Epigenetic view - emphasizes development is result of bidirectional, ongoing interchange between heredity and environment.

Linkage analysis - Discover location of diseased genes usually near marker of genes.

Methylation - turning on and off genes from exercise by tiny atoms attaching themselves to the outside of a gene

Genotype - genetic material inherited from parents

Phenotype - visible expression of physical and behavioral characteristics.

Monozygotic - twins from a single cell, identical twins.

Dizygotic - twins from two separate eggs.

Organogenesis - process of organ formation during the first two months of prenatal development.

Lie-support systems - Amnion, umbilical cord and placenta. Forms rapidly for the embryo.
Chromosomal segments during meiosis, mutations, and the distinction between a genotype and a phenotype.

Mutation - changed or damaged DNA

Susceptibility Genes - Cause a person to be more vulnerable to diseases and aging

Longevity Genes - Cause a person to be less vulnerable to diseases and aging.
What are shared and nonshared environmental influences, and which one is more significant in determining cognitive abilities?Shared - Nutrition, family practices, neighborhood. Unshared - Peers, diseases, recreational, activities, age, birth order, talents/abilities Shared E factors are more significant.What are the three periods of natal dev and what occurs in each period?Germinal - creation of fertilized egg, cell division, and ends when zygote attaches to uterine wall. Embryonic - rate of cell division intensifies, support systems forms, and organs appear. Fetal - growth and development continue, moving limbs, identifiable genitals.THIS IS THE ONLY pounds, ounces, and inches question being asked: What is the average U.S. baby weight at birth and how many inches long?8 lbs, 20 inchesExplain how the following can affect brain development: maternal diabetes, obesity, spina bifida, neurogenesis, proliferation, migration, and connectivity.Maternal diabetes and obesity - risk for developing neural tube defects. Spina bifida - incomplete development of the spinal cord Neurogenesis/proliferation - generation of new neurons Migration - the movement of cells outward to their appropriate locations. Connectivity - connections between neurons.What normal developmental checks are used to assess prenatal dev?Amniocentesis, Ultrasound sonography, fetal MRI, Maternal blood screening.Explain prenatal dev hazards.Teratogens - agent that negatively changes cognitive outcomes. Prescription/nonprescription drugs, psychoactive drugs, cigarette smoke, Rubella, aids, low folic levels, radiation, being over 35, stress, high anxiety.What does Planned Parenthood provide and why is prenatal care so important for human dev?Screening for medical conditions.What are the three stages of the birth process, childbirth strategies, methods of delivery, and risks to the fetus?birth processes - Uterine contractions, Baby's head moves to birth canal, and after birth. Childbirth strategies - Settings like home, birth center. Attendants like mid wife, father, Abdula. Methods of delivery - Medicated Natural, Cesarean, nonmedicated like water births. Risks - large number of adrenaline and noradrenaline hormones into newborns body.What can be done for low-birth weight and preterm infants?Kangaroo care, massage therapy, bonding. Importance of touch.What is postpartum depression, its risk factors, and the impact of the father's or partner's support?A period of major depression from mother after birth to 6 weeks post birth. Risk Factors - depression during pregnancy, postpartum physical complications, emotional negativity of child. Impact or father is very important for support.