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US & VA History - Standard 7 - The American Civil War and Reconstruction

Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln elected President; most Southern states seceded fearing that Lincoln would abolish slavery
Fort Sumter
the opening confrontation of the Civil War in South Carolina
the battle of Antietam
This Union victory in Maryland gave President Lincoln and opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
the battle of Gettysburg
the turning point of the Civil War; occurred in Pennsylvania
where General Lee surrendered to General Grant in Virginia; Lee urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans
Abraham Lincoln
As President of the U.S., he insisted that the Union would be held together by force if necessary
Jefferson Davis
U.S. Senator from Mississippi who became President of the Confederate States of America
Robert E. Lee
Confederate General of the Army of Northern Virginia; Opposed secession but opposed keeping the Union together by force; became president of Washington College after the war and emphasized the value of education
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general who won victories over the South after other generals had failed; became President during Reconstruction period; opposed retribution against the South after the war and supported rights of freedmen
Frederick Douglass
former slave who was an abolitionist; urged President Lincoln to recruit former slaves for the Union Army during the war; served as US Ambassador to Haiti after the war
The Emancipation Proclamation
freed slaves located in Southern states that had seceded from the Union; made abolition of slavery a Northern war aim; discouraged interference by foreign governments; allowed African-Americans to serve in the Union Army
The Gettysburg Address
Lincoln said the war was about preserving a nation in which "all men are created equal" and that the government must be "of the people, by the people, and for the people."
the life of common soldiers
battles were sometimes hand-to-hand combat; soldiers wrote diaries letters to record the war's harshness; some soldiers suffered permanent disabilities or returned home to find destruction and poverty
the role of women
managed homes and families with scarce resources; faced poverty and hunger; assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing and war industries
Radical Republicans
took punitive measures against the South after the Lincoln assassination; states that had seceded were not immediately allowed back into the Union but were placed under military occupation
Andrew Johnson
became President after Lincoln assassination; clashed with Radicals over civil rights of freed slaves; was impeached but not removed
13th Amendment
abolished slavery everywhere in the United States
14th Amendment
states are prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American
15th Amendment
voting rights were guaranteed regardless of 'race, color, or previous condition of servitude'
Compromise of 1877
the disputed presidential election ended up in Congress; Southern Democrats supported the Republican candidate in exchange for an end to military occupation of the South; Reconstruction ended and the Jim Crow Era began in the South
Jim Crow Era
long period in which African-Americans in the South were denied full citizenship
Northern economy after the Civil War
emerged with a strong and growing industrial economy allowing the U.S. to become a global economic power
Southern economy after the Civil War
left embittered and devastated by the war; farms, railroads and factories were destroyed; Confederate money was worthless; towns like Atlanta and Richmond were left in ruins; would remain a poor agricultural based economy for decades after the war
Transcontinental Railroad
intensified the westward movement of settlers between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean after the Civil War