-turbulent English court of King Henry VIII
- Wyatt had a cynical view of women and love, which is certainly present in his poetry. His poem, "The long love, that in my though doth harbor" describes how duty is more of noble pursuit than romantic love. This poem, however, is based on Petrarch's Rima 140, which defends Love - love is personified as a master or King. Although both poems refer to love as a master, Wyatt is interprets love as pledging to an earthly King. In Surrey's Norton version of Petrarch's Rima 140, he is not afraid to take the side of romantic love, and is more true to Petrarch's original message. According to the Norton, Petrarch mourns the loss of his lover. Allegiance to one's loved-ones seems to pale against Wyatt's pledge of honor to Henry VIII.
speaking voice, "I" of the poem
"Love, who lives and reigns in my though and keeps his principal seat in my heart, sometimes comes forth all in armor into my forehead, there camps, and there sets up his banner
Expectations of Convention
-love -Eros - Cupid (he has you, no control)
-one eye covered, powerful, Cupid knocks over Mars and beats him with an arrow
What do they feel?
Icy fire, weak in the knees, heart goes to gut
Love- "weeps and trembles"
The variation of sonnet plays with conventions
first 6 lines all 1
Grandfather was a judg, noted, law books, -Cryiack had large shoes to fill
-Milton does not tell him to get his nose to the grindstone
-subject, resolve, "take a holiday from these things"
-Euclid, and Archimedes, politics, math (bathtub, weight, Eureka physics)
-suggest, goal of study is to become wise, learn to measure life-not to get an A, not master for the sake of master
knowledge vs. wisdom- learning goal of study -know when it is important to study and when to take a break
-measure=experience - PERSPECTIVE AND BALANCE
"For other things...mild..." do not work too hard
When God sends a cheerful hour
-true goal wisdom not knowledge, cheerful hour, helps you not to drift from study, drench deep thoughts of mirth
-long drink helps you keep work-long term vs. short-term goal
1) Astrophil is corrupt, seduction, sinister not love
-hopes she;ll tale pleasure in his writing, She might take some pleasure in my pain
read, know, pity, grace= structure of sentence is cause and effect
-goeal from begininning to bed her/ Grace
Virtue= spirit, leave it
Body= for me
-each is a series of persuasions
BUT- there are converns about being in love to start with
2) It was a process, not at first sight, by degrees, full conquest, completely under love's control (I paint my hell!)
- CONSTRUCT ONE BUILDS OF A PERSON without really knowing
This experience of love doesn't feel good-but he is a slave
-takes him from life and goals,
-tugs between first and love, Stella is a fiction, beginning of obsession, struggle under weight of it, time is a remedy, perhaps another love may help
teaches by negative example -knows he loves, does not want to love, tunnel vision
VIRTUE AND DESIRE BREAK APART- he has constructed that he must choose one over the other
-we are to admire his energy and wit or morally corrupt and emotionally exhausted?
At the end, we see this as a cautionary tale ENDS IN ISOLATION, frustration, DESPAIR
Why are Stella and Astrophil separated?
Astrophil and Stella can one fay be together if he doesn't pursue her
Astrophil has tunnel vision- takes away reason
Long view vs. short vies, neoplatonic
knows that there are other things in the world, but turns "Eyes are formed to serve the inward lights" God is good
-reason ought to rule, but if it doesn't we must suppress
"heavenly part ought to be king
PHAEDRUS- charioteer, reason- horses soul and body
True and yet true that I must Stella loose
-tell that good God make church and church man serve
Cupid, effect perspective make churchman deed, virtue not there, slow process
I know that this is idolatrous, my training, has taught we such
self- chosen snare
desire, opposite of virtue, struggle
BREAK APART AND CHOOSE DESIRE
"Pilgrims made" journey of human life
Whether or not his fault or Cupid's fault? Am I really a slave? I want to be a student! I have skills and wisdom/virtue
"Desire makes us traitors to ourselves." -Shakespeare
-May argue this inwardly, pulls against everything I know
definition of virtue is part of Astrophil's struggle
Love and desire vs. Reason opposite
-very human struggle/ long and short view
young man's struggle and turmoil
Knows virtue outside world knows he's distracted by it
a) What's happening b) how does it relate to struggle
Astrophil struggles in grip of love
-love inflicted by outside source or within
Moment to moment, we don't want to think of something
Stella indicates possibility of long-term relationship
What can we make of him? dislike him as we go on
VIRTUE- Seems to be desire without self-interest
LOVE- seems to be synonymous with LUST
Knows he is caught, sunk, outside of experience
Phaedrus, Plato, inward light, passions, spirit, will, horse, soul, psyche
-still need desire for chariot to make toward the good-not good when only attracts desires of flesh
We aren't talking saints, day to day experience to be trapped in this turmoil
-really in control, all part of possession
William Shakespeare -
Sonnets "To the Only Begetter of These Ensuing Sonnets Mr. W.H. All Happiness and That Eternity Promised By Our Ever-Living Poet Wisheth The Well-Wishing Adventurer in Setting Forth T.T"
10, 16, 18, 20, 21, 31, 34, 39, 45, 47, 52, 56 69, 71, 73, 74, 80, 85, 87, 93, 94, 97, 98, 105, 106, 107, 110, 116, 1226, 127, 128, 129, 130, 135, 138, 144, 146, 147, 152
How are we to take this play? We know its a comedy, but its more than that.
The Comedies and Tragedies differ- not homosocial- discovering a different sort of love
Lunatic, lover, poet- all man/ seen Helen's brow
Things aren't really this way, how silly
Are we worried about the characters or are we following them?
The gossip was all the he was courting? Does Orsino even love Olivia or is he like Astrophil?
-is going to a play to proceed
- do we despise Orsino? Cesario tries to distract them by hunting
Orsino has a limited idea of how women love- Viola can teach him
Olivia need to learn Responses to calamities in the world
-Valentine" how had Olivia responded to death vs. Viola- vows to cloister self for several years
Orsino can't spare much sympathy for such feelings, just wants her to love
-sir Toby belch thinks Olivia is ridiculous, hes a noble duke of nature and name, Olivia will hold him virtuous
-has potential, he's educational according to Viola
Viola has seen Orsino in intimate moments- secret book of souls, INTENSE RELATIONSHIPS- are between those of equal mind - FRIENDS
-he trusts her disguised as a boy
Obsessed with Olivia and all the cliches and experience of being in love
This DISGUISE helps her get closer in friendship- potential tragedy
12th Day of Christmas- Epiphany- all the air of a long party
The fool- Olivia has no folly besides foolishness- fixate on loss- Viola be faced with same situation, but has hope
Teaches Orsino to love more profoundly
-teaches Olivia to be open
Options- shipwrecked, no protectors -cannot serve Olivia because she won't accept anyone, but she can sing perform if she goes to court (Feste) -doesn't turn up where expected
-fool allowed to say things others can't
Love between friends, a meeting of minds
As we learn to love, someone who is close to us, learn to care through same gender - wife, children, part of self
Orsino has not experienced a bes friend- Viola introduces him- Self giving- SEBASTIAN AND ANTONIO
Expand what love can be (no homo)
Men and women should be friends first
Viola has shown Orsino that women can love (civilizes him)
Feste to Orsino- your mind is cracked like an opal
She needs to balance the folly and foolishness
Viola: Suppose she cannot love you Orsino: She will!
-tries to give advice "make no compare between that a love a women can bear me, And that I owe Olivia"
"But died my sister by love"
Viola- has something to teach him - has makings of a tragedy since one can day of love
If you don't have a little folly in you won't understand the play
Orsino's love is not wrong, just misguided
Feste: festivity, master of revels, licensed fool, speak truth to power, tread close to the edge, the Fool and Viola move between courts, manage through wit to get people to think
We need to proceed in madness
Malvolio- no opportunity for joy, too reasonable - shut down opportunity for festivity, Toby Belch exploits Sir Andrew, con out of fortune
Malvolio- threatens anyone who doesn't fit his sense of decorum (it is not time to play)
"Rats Bane of the Christian Commenwealth" plays are a threat to society. - Plato bans fiction-too much emotion
How do you save the good in a theatrical world- both silly and profound
THIS PLAY SHOWS US HOW TO BRING THINGS TO BALANCE
Tug of war- Toby and Andrew with Malvolio
professional ill-willer, no balance
Marriage- as their own positions are threatened, Fabian and the fool throw into the bargain
Maria says Toby should be more orderly, Plot against Killjoy, no frivolity, Going to prank him
Malvolio is the man you love to hate- Toby admits that this prank is actually empowering him, "I'll have my revenge on the pack of you!"
-by the end the play, it's almost tipped over, BUT THEN LIFE IS WORTH LIVING
Seem to bring hope of future- silly but enjoy it
Orsino- give my excess, BUT THERE MUST BE A BALANCED WAY TO CONFRONT PROBLEMS, do not despair!
Olivia disproportionate response to loss, never been tempted - odd for Sebastian to say okay to her, but love at first sight possible here, TIME IS OUT FRIEND THIS TIME, the solutions willing to accept make this mature
Possibility of festivity and joy if we take advantage of opportunities
Disaster Epicurean--> useless, Malvolio
End of a long party, sober to reality -WITHOUT IMAGINATIVE VISION WE LOSE SOMETHING PRECIOUS
Confusing virtue with lack of opportunity- I see through art an evil, poor lady she better of a dream- time must resolve (Viola) SOLUTIONS MUST MAGICALLY BE AVAILABLE
Comedy makes us aware of all improbably things
they are just like well...it is but it is not
something important about human beings to not be straight forward
Cesario and Orsino can get to know each other, friendship and love, Ways in which human hearts can find one another Whoever loved that had not loved at first sight, attraction that can grow into love, loss of opportunity if not seized
Antonio is still not given peace, his devotion to Sebastian shall not be fulfilled, "You have fallen in love with both maid and man
-Malvolio key to property in cabinet, Shakespeare;s stories end in weddings, but this is s deferred wedding
THINGS NEED TO BE BROUGHT BACK INTO PROPORTION- envisioning, when appropriate to be sober
Men and women have more in common than differences
when you fall in love, you get to know more about yourself
The comic Universe of this play
-it's not that we don't have the potential for tragedy
-Malvolio captured makes him both judge and plaintiff
Going to a play is like being in love- a little profound, the rain it raineth every day
"If we shadows have offended, you ave slumbered here" puck says to audience if this play has offended you, you have all participates, and you will wake up
The song that ends 12th Night is more pointed, time and a place for being foolish could never strive
Time is kind- SOLUTIONS MADE AVAILABLE IN COMEDY
IN Shakespeare's tragedy, two different attitudes toward the same world, Problems, comedy, in spite of everything, life is worth living
What i the universe contains a malevolent figure who uses us for sport?
TRAGEDY IS DISSATISFIED WITH SOLUTIONS, COMEDY WISH TO ACCEPT IT - if we long for a good life, we have to provide it- render what the world is like
Robert Penwara- spider web analogy
AND THEY LIVE HAPPILY EVER AFTER not point, life worth living, but not the WHOLE
Patience- patio or (pati) passus sum - active verb, active virtue
King Lear is an elderly monarch, tired of carrying the burden of his kingdom and his royal responsibilities, and desiring a more peaceful life in his old age. He decides to abdicate and to divide the realm between his three daughters; Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. In order to ascertain who will be given which areas of land, Lear conceives a "love-test" for which each daughter must convince their father that they love him the most out of his three children. Goneril and Regan are greedy and false, so they win their portions of the kingdom by flattering Lear.
The king expects his favourite daughter, Cordelia, to win the challenge and thus claim the greatest third of the realm. However, Cordelia refuses to participate in the "love-test" because she realises how essentially shallow the contest actually is. Lear's pride is wounded and he furiously banishes Cordelia from the land, announcing that the kingdom will now only be divided in half between Goneril and Regan. One of Cordelia's suitors, the Duke of Burgundy, politely explains that he does not want to marry her if she has no wealth - however, the King of France agrees to take her as his wife and leads her away. Cordelia is defended by Kent, a loyal servant of the king, who criticises his master's actions. For his efforts, Kent is also exiled. Goneril and Regan observe their father's behaviour as not being uncommon, for even in his prime he was rash and foolish.
Elsewhere in the royal court, the illegitimate son of the Duke of Gloucester is also plotting against his father. Gloucester has two sons, Edgar and Edmund. The latter is illegitimate and therefore the two young men are not given equal amounts of property by their father. Edmund feels that this is very unfair, so he deceives his father into thinking that Edgar is trying to kill him. Gloucester is alarmed; he disinherits Edgar who flees from the court. Determined to hunt him down, his father proclaims him a tyrant and sends soldiers to search the countryside and guard the ports. Edgar fears for his life and goes into hiding on the heath, disguised as a mad beggar named 'Poor Tom'.
Lear is confronted by Goneril and Regan, who insist that he should reduce the number of servants who accompany him. Lear is outraged, and sees this as an attack on his dignity and authority. The insult is made worse when one of his servants is put into the stocks as a punishment. Lear becomes hysterical with rage and rushes out onto the heath in the middle of a violent storm, ranting and raving in madness. Kent joins Lear and 'Poor Tom' (Edgar in disguise) on the heath. Gloucester also attempts to help the king but incurs the wrath of Goneril and Regan, who pluck out his eyes in revenge. The blinded Gloucester is cast out onto the heath, where he encounters 'Poor Tom'. Gloucester has realised the mistake he made when he banished Edgar; in his desperate grief, he attempts suicide. However, he is saved by Edgar, who then reveals his identity and forgives his father. Gloucester is so overwhelmed by joy and remorse that he dies.
A family gathering for the farewell of my daughter
it is also a public gathering
her response to her sisters is a public problem
her response brings no comfort to Lear or respect
He wanted to benefit the whole as well as himself. She wants to keep things private but her rejection is public
For Cordelia, love is a web for her sisters its a noun
It causes embarrassment and problems, she's telling hims something true,but she also can't give
I love you according to my bonnet
could she not say something to suit the occasion? Stubborn
Lear acts with anger and hurt, he expects loyalty
-no one has ever told him no
-proceeds, suffers, and from his suffering he learns the meaning of kindness, humility, Glouster learns to see
-Shakespeare sets these plays to a Christian time
-Edmund and Cordelia learn forgiveness, Edgar learns that not everyone is as honest as he, Edmund and older sisters animalistic
The rain it raineth every day, fool in 12th Night says the same thing as the fool in Lear, we are slow learners, we want to be treated with respect, we being mad if that respect is not kept,
Goneril and Regan say things that are out of order, permission to unruly to father
Once's sense of humanity, society of mutual obligation and duties
Ceremonial treatment important, give him a sense of who he is
-expectations of those we love are UNWRITTEN, UNEXAMINED. UNTIL BROKEN
Edmund's duties to his father and brother are only in terms of what will allow him to rise about them
Assumptions we make
Understood when we've been wrong Leer, (80 years old) given to his daughters, expect honor, sometimes hard to respect someone who is misbehaving
Kent - "Royal Lear" patron, binds and defend his duties to Lear
he sees Lears possibilities and Viola sees Orsino's
-We all want to be respected and ACKNOWLEDGED
-Lear wants to be respected as a king (surrogate for the almighty)
working relationship- obeyed- Lear born as God's anointed, special duties and honor
Only asked to retain what he values as a person, those who have respect for him are 100 servants- SOLE RESERVATION, but the power he gave away
Behavior they respect/ expect of you - talk back because Lear is being silly
AS A PARENT YOU EXPECT GRATITUDE IF NOTHING ELSE
0Lear is an object, a child, old
Why are Goneril and Regan still wanting more? Why does Lear matter? Who can tell me who I am?
"You don't need trappings" "REASON NOT THE NEED!"
man's life is as cheap as beasts, your stuff, suddenly told you couldn't go home, angry because there is fault on both sides
-Lear admits mistake of act one,
-let us leave him in the storm, need to learn lesson "old man"
Cordelia offers forgiveness, so unexpected, but simple human kindness, refuse Gloucester the opportunity to be human and help him
Cornwell -"He'll learn!"
Can't believe anyone can have problems not related to the ingratitude of daughters.
Doesn't understand in Act 3 that there are others that can feel dear
Kent takes servant role (risk at 41 years old)
has to offend King first, it is his duty
What is natural becomes human kindness, fellow human can feel pain and fear, gives life meaning, divide in two don't want to get run over, get out of the way, prevent Gloucester from getting his eyes gouged out
YOU DON'T WASTE GOOD
Kent sees in Lear a sense of forgiveness when he doesn't deserve it, I'm capable of anything a normal man is capable of -Kent
Human beings are kind to other human beings ESPECIALLY when they don't deserve.
When someone treats you with respect you being to weep, only thing that matters, are silent, for first time in his life,someone tells him no
Only a servant will speak out for Gloucester
That goodness means that there is some justice in the universe
At what cost has it taken for Lear and Gloucester to learn lessons -
TRAGEDY- cries to cosmos with no answer, people love at end of play are responsible for carrying on, sense of diminish.
What happens to fool, fool is a replacement child, there when Lear needs him but gone wen Cordelia comes, Edgar and Cordelia try to do night by their parents
Shakespeare refuses to over-simplify Even Edmund isn't all evil
Cordelia becomes idealized other worldly, but no gods
-all we learn is a bit of humanity, but these lessons are incredibly costly, Lear's daughters die
All this play can do is as "what if there is no order
The resolution isn't in answers, but in our responses
We cannot answer what in nature makes these hard hears, The hopes are broken, one endures, it is not the worse so long as we can say it is the worse
-tragedy leaves us shocked and madden when do we take theses questions? We become aware of the food that exists in this world it is humanity kindness isn't both worlds that makes life living
The fool turns knave, human wisdom and folly if we want good, we must be good
speak what we feel, not what we ought to say
relationships between humans made life worth living
Lear never fully comes out of his elicitation but he does become more sensitive to other human suffering
in the storm he makes a distinction
Lear experiences the fall wrath of nature, Calls for justice, sees himself as a victim and a man, when he sees the fool fear and poor Tom, he realizes he cannot control the weather, man is nothing but nothing but a naked animal ,he desires to bring justice to the poor
he tries to see the cause of the storm THE INGRATITUDE OF DAUGHTERS, he can't get past this, but he can finally see other humans
-still fixed on being king clearly mad, in his madness he speaks truth, reason the double standard
Less sensual, emotional state. First 8 lines are a church sermon. God the Father, Jesus comes from the Father. The Spirit moving with in them, His poem is of the mind. it is though and not seeing. It is like the Credo.
at the last 6 lines, it dares to talk about the response to the Trinity. This is not an engraving of the heart, but of the mind
"Great God, within whose simple essence we..." Jesus and Spirit come from the Father
(As lovers' sighs which meet become one wind), This is the most sensual part
Eternal Father- this is now my father
my father have- Jesus loves me
in my mind engrave- not hear, you have to know it will happen
And heavenly knowledge
That it thy son's true Image may become - God drives it and humans must reciprocate
And cense my heart- Incense, cleansing the alter.
Child-like faith, not like Jonson
I have come, you may think, to the verge of saying that comedy is greater than tragedy. On the verge I stand and go no further. Tragedy's experience hammers against the mystery to make a breach which would admit the whole triumphant answer. Intuition has no such potential. But there are times in the state of man when comedy has a special worth, and the present is one of them: a time when the loudest faith has been faith in a trampling materialism, when literature has been thought unrealistic which did not mark and remark our poverty and doom. Joy (of a kind) has been all on the devil's side, and one of the necessities of our time is to redeem it. If not, we are in poor sort to meet the circumstances, the circumstances being the contention of death with life, which is to say evil with good, which is to say desolation with delight. Laughter may only seem to be like an exhalation of air, but out of that air we came; in the beginning we inhaled it; it is a truth, not a fantasy, a truth voluble of good which comedy stoutly maintains.
If I had to draw a picture of the person of Comedy, it is so I should like to draw it: the tears of laughter running down the face, one hand still lying on the tragic page which so nearly contained the answer, the lips about to frame the great revelation only to find it had gone as disconcertingly as a chair twitched away when we want to sit down. Comedy is an escape, not from truth but from despair: a narrow escape into faith. It believes in a universal cause for delight, even though knowledge of the cause is always twitched away from under us, which leaves us to rest on our own buoyancy. In tragedy every moment is eternity; in comedy eternity is a moment. In tragedy we suffer pain; in comedy pain is a fool, suffered gladly.
small Latin less Greek
James the 1st of England, very different from Elizabethan
Jonson wrote satire, wintery person
1642- Parliament closed all theaters, closet drama 1660 reopened, women on stage
Early 17th century, restoration
-contrast Jonson and Shakespearean imagery
Jonson coined "metaphysical" as an insult
wintery sensibility, a moralist,
"Of vice and virtue, wherein all great life, Almost, is exercises; and scarce one knows To which ye of the sides himself he owes. They follow virtue for reward today, Tomorrow vice, if she gives better pay"
Holding to upright principles from day to day. A centered self, balanced. Keep principles stable and unchanging. Even the jealous are his goodness
Naming- names, make or break people's reputation, suggest the person named does something to make the relationship between the two relational
play looks to human folly, as a strict moralist
honest man a french idea, a rascal, good at parties,
Jonson describes how wit will destroy itself, but not without destroying others
An issue of warning
"anarchy of drink" disorder, dangerous to the state
it not even a pronoun "it lays on him" a danger to others because they believe his acting
"wit vs. wisdom" - draw a line between definition and description. The honest man lacks the center it is moving so no solid definition, just a description surface tings not essence, what something does vs. what it is
when Adam named animals, he said something about essence, here Jonson gives no nature
He is always changing- vice
how much struggle Jonson has on giving boy up - Benjamin
died as at age of seven, a sense of protest, he forgot the child was loan, but it is also the just day God's timing
Requiem lament- struggling between sadness and acceptance, It's time that he's in a better place, but that place forgets the loss those behind experiences, use relationship is gone. Struggle to believe what his faith tell him and what he feels, rest in soft peace
here lies his best piece of poetry
the best thing he had ever made, the last two lines, his sin was loving his son too much
he's saying that he'll never love that way again. I don't want to get hurt. A similar heart to having a beloved. There is something so painful about the loss, we may never get another.
in this we see that Jonson has feelings and emotions
Helena: We, Hermia, like two artificial gods,
Have with our needles created both one flower,
Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion,
Both warbling of one song, both in one key,
As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds
Had been incorporate. So we grew together,
Like to a double cherry, seeming parted,
But yet an union in partition,
Two lovely berries moulded on one stem;
So with two seeming bodies, but one heart,
On betray of friendship - Hermia and Lysander
Wit, like all other things subject by their nature to the choice of man, has its changes and its fashions, and at different times takes different forms. About the beginning of the seventeenth century appeared a race
of writers that may be termed the metaphysical poets*....
The metaphysical poets were men of learning, and to show their learning was their whole endeavor; but, unluckily resolving to show it in rhyme, instead of writing poetry they only wrote verses, and very often such verses as stood the trial of the finger better than of the ear; for the modulation was so imperfect that they were only found to be verses by
counting the syllables....
Those, however, who deny them to be poets allow them to be wits. Dryden confesses of himself
and his contemporaries that they fall below Donne in wit, but maintains that they surpass him in poetry.