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ENG-320 Exam 1

Terms in this set (82)

How are we to take this play? We know its a comedy, but its more than that.
The Comedies and Tragedies differ- not homosocial- discovering a different sort of love
Lunatic, lover, poet- all man/ seen Helen's brow
Things aren't really this way, how silly
Are we worried about the characters or are we following them?
The gossip was all the he was courting? Does Orsino even love Olivia or is he like Astrophil?
-self-correcting quality
-is going to a play to proceed
- do we despise Orsino? Cesario tries to distract them by hunting
Orsino has a limited idea of how women love- Viola can teach him
Olivia need to learn Responses to calamities in the world
-Valentine" how had Olivia responded to death vs. Viola- vows to cloister self for several years
Orsino can't spare much sympathy for such feelings, just wants her to love
-sir Toby belch thinks Olivia is ridiculous, hes a noble duke of nature and name, Olivia will hold him virtuous
-has potential, he's educational according to Viola
Viola has seen Orsino in intimate moments- secret book of souls, INTENSE RELATIONSHIPS- are between those of equal mind - FRIENDS
-he trusts her disguised as a boy
Obsessed with Olivia and all the cliches and experience of being in love
This DISGUISE helps her get closer in friendship- potential tragedy
12th Day of Christmas- Epiphany- all the air of a long party
The fool- Olivia has no folly besides foolishness- fixate on loss- Viola be faced with same situation, but has hope
Teaches Orsino to love more profoundly
-teaches Olivia to be open
Options- shipwrecked, no protectors -cannot serve Olivia because she won't accept anyone, but she can sing perform if she goes to court (Feste) -doesn't turn up where expected
-fool allowed to say things others can't
Love between friends, a meeting of minds
As we learn to love, someone who is close to us, learn to care through same gender - wife, children, part of self
Orsino has not experienced a bes friend- Viola introduces him- Self giving- SEBASTIAN AND ANTONIO
Expand what love can be (no homo)
Men and women should be friends first
King Lear is an elderly monarch, tired of carrying the burden of his kingdom and his royal responsibilities, and desiring a more peaceful life in his old age. He decides to abdicate and to divide the realm between his three daughters; Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. In order to ascertain who will be given which areas of land, Lear conceives a "love-test" for which each daughter must convince their father that they love him the most out of his three children. Goneril and Regan are greedy and false, so they win their portions of the kingdom by flattering Lear.

The king expects his favourite daughter, Cordelia, to win the challenge and thus claim the greatest third of the realm. However, Cordelia refuses to participate in the "love-test" because she realises how essentially shallow the contest actually is. Lear's pride is wounded and he furiously banishes Cordelia from the land, announcing that the kingdom will now only be divided in half between Goneril and Regan. One of Cordelia's suitors, the Duke of Burgundy, politely explains that he does not want to marry her if she has no wealth - however, the King of France agrees to take her as his wife and leads her away. Cordelia is defended by Kent, a loyal servant of the king, who criticises his master's actions. For his efforts, Kent is also exiled. Goneril and Regan observe their father's behaviour as not being uncommon, for even in his prime he was rash and foolish.

Elsewhere in the royal court, the illegitimate son of the Duke of Gloucester is also plotting against his father. Gloucester has two sons, Edgar and Edmund. The latter is illegitimate and therefore the two young men are not given equal amounts of property by their father. Edmund feels that this is very unfair, so he deceives his father into thinking that Edgar is trying to kill him. Gloucester is alarmed; he disinherits Edgar who flees from the court. Determined to hunt him down, his father proclaims him a tyrant and sends soldiers to search the countryside and guard the ports. Edgar fears for his life and goes into hiding on the heath, disguised as a mad beggar named 'Poor Tom'.

Lear is confronted by Goneril and Regan, who insist that he should reduce the number of servants who accompany him. Lear is outraged, and sees this as an attack on his dignity and authority. The insult is made worse when one of his servants is put into the stocks as a punishment. Lear becomes hysterical with rage and rushes out onto the heath in the middle of a violent storm, ranting and raving in madness. Kent joins Lear and 'Poor Tom' (Edgar in disguise) on the heath. Gloucester also attempts to help the king but incurs the wrath of Goneril and Regan, who pluck out his eyes in revenge. The blinded Gloucester is cast out onto the heath, where he encounters 'Poor Tom'. Gloucester has realised the mistake he made when he banished Edgar; in his desperate grief, he attempts suicide. However, he is saved by Edgar, who then reveals his identity and forgives his father. Gloucester is so overwhelmed by joy and remorse that he dies.
The rain it raineth every day, fool in 12th Night says the same thing as the fool in Lear, we are slow learners, we want to be treated with respect, we being mad if that respect is not kept,
Goneril and Regan say things that are out of order, permission to unruly to father
Once's sense of humanity, society of mutual obligation and duties
Ceremonial treatment important, give him a sense of who he is
-expectations of those we love are UNWRITTEN, UNEXAMINED. UNTIL BROKEN
Edmund's duties to his father and brother are only in terms of what will allow him to rise about them
Assumptions we make
Understood when we've been wrong Leer, (80 years old) given to his daughters, expect honor, sometimes hard to respect someone who is misbehaving
Kent - "Royal Lear" patron, binds and defend his duties to Lear
he sees Lears possibilities and Viola sees Orsino's
-We all want to be respected and ACKNOWLEDGED
-Lear wants to be respected as a king (surrogate for the almighty)
working relationship- obeyed- Lear born as God's anointed, special duties and honor
Only asked to retain what he values as a person, those who have respect for him are 100 servants- SOLE RESERVATION, but the power he gave away
Behavior they respect/ expect of you - talk back because Lear is being silly
0Lear is an object, a child, old
Why are Goneril and Regan still wanting more? Why does Lear matter? Who can tell me who I am?
"You don't need trappings" "REASON NOT THE NEED!"
man's life is as cheap as beasts, your stuff, suddenly told you couldn't go home, angry because there is fault on both sides
-Lear admits mistake of act one,
-let us leave him in the storm, need to learn lesson "old man"
Cordelia offers forgiveness, so unexpected, but simple human kindness, refuse Gloucester the opportunity to be human and help him
Cornwell -"He'll learn!"
Can't believe anyone can have problems not related to the ingratitude of daughters.
What happens to fool, fool is a replacement child, there when Lear needs him but gone wen Cordelia comes, Edgar and Cordelia try to do night by their parents
Shakespeare refuses to over-simplify Even Edmund isn't all evil
Cordelia becomes idealized other worldly, but no gods
-all we learn is a bit of humanity, but these lessons are incredibly costly, Lear's daughters die
All this play can do is as "what if there is no order
The resolution isn't in answers, but in our responses
We cannot answer what in nature makes these hard hears, The hopes are broken, one endures, it is not the worse so long as we can say it is the worse
-tragedy leaves us shocked and madden when do we take theses questions? We become aware of the food that exists in this world it is humanity kindness isn't both worlds that makes life living
The fool turns knave, human wisdom and folly if we want good, we must be good
speak what we feel, not what we ought to say
relationships between humans made life worth living
Lear never fully comes out of his elicitation but he does become more sensitive to other human suffering
in the storm he makes a distinction
Lear experiences the fall wrath of nature, Calls for justice, sees himself as a victim and a man, when he sees the fool fear and poor Tom, he realizes he cannot control the weather, man is nothing but nothing but a naked animal ,he desires to bring justice to the poor
he tries to see the cause of the storm THE INGRATITUDE OF DAUGHTERS, he can't get past this, but he can finally see other humans
-still fixed on being king clearly mad, in his madness he speaks truth, reason the double standard
I have come, you may think, to the verge of saying that comedy is greater than tragedy. On the verge I stand and go no further. Tragedy's experience hammers against the mystery to make a breach which would admit the whole triumphant answer. Intuition has no such potential. But there are times in the state of man when comedy has a special worth, and the present is one of them: a time when the loudest faith has been faith in a trampling materialism, when literature has been thought unrealistic which did not mark and remark our poverty and doom. Joy (of a kind) has been all on the devil's side, and one of the necessities of our time is to redeem it. If not, we are in poor sort to meet the circumstances, the circumstances being the contention of death with life, which is to say evil with good, which is to say desolation with delight. Laughter may only seem to be like an exhalation of air, but out of that air we came; in the beginning we inhaled it; it is a truth, not a fantasy, a truth voluble of good which comedy stoutly maintains.

If I had to draw a picture of the person of Comedy, it is so I should like to draw it: the tears of laughter running down the face, one hand still lying on the tragic page which so nearly contained the answer, the lips about to frame the great revelation only to find it had gone as disconcertingly as a chair twitched away when we want to sit down. Comedy is an escape, not from truth but from despair: a narrow escape into faith. It believes in a universal cause for delight, even though knowledge of the cause is always twitched away from under us, which leaves us to rest on our own buoyancy. In tragedy every moment is eternity; in comedy eternity is a moment. In tragedy we suffer pain; in comedy pain is a fool, suffered gladly.