Biopsychology Ch. 11 Learning, Memory, and Amnesia

On which memory test did H.M. display deficits?
block-tapping test
Pavlovian conditioning
incomplete-pictures test
mirror-drawing test
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Testing of victims of cerebral trauma indicates that: A. closed-head traumatic brain injuries preferentially disrupt older memories. B. memory consolidation is not a viable theory. C. lasting memories deteriorate and become more vulnerable to disruption. D. lasting memories become linked to additional memories and more resistant to disruption.D. lasting memories become linked to additional memories and more resistant to disruption.Hebb argued that memories of experiences are stored in the short term by: A. the basal forebrain. B. neural activity reverberating in closed circuits. C. the mediodorsal nuclei of the thalamus. D. the cortex.B. neural activity reverberating in closed circuits.To account for the fact that H.M.'s bilateral medial temporal lobectomy produced retrograde amnesia only for those events that occurred in the few years just before his surgery, it was suggested that memories are temporarily stored in the hippocampus until they can be transferred to a more stable cortical store. This theory became known as _____ theory. A. the standard consolidation B. Hebb's reconsolidation C. the multiple-trace D. the hippocampal-corticalA. the standard consolidationA change in the brain that stores a memory is known as: A. an engram. B. a penumbra. C. an infarct. D. reconsolidation.A. an engram.The _____________________ hypothesis holds that each time a memory is retrieved from long-term storage, it becomes labile. A. reconsolidation B. consolidation C. global amnesia D. engramA. reconsolidationIn the ________________________ task a monkey is presented with a distinctive object (the sample object), under which it finds food. Then, after a specified delay, the monkey is presented with two test objects: the sample object and an unfamiliar object. The monkey must select the unfamiliar object to receive a food reward. A. repetition priming B. delayed matching-to-sample C. delayed nonmatching-to-sample D. nondelayed matching-to-sampleC. delayed nonmatching-to-sample_____ developed the version of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test for rats that most closely resembles the version for monkeys. A. Squire B. Nadel C. Barnes D. MumbyD. MumbyAlmost all studies of hippocampal lesions in monkeys and humans entail damage to large portions of the ____________ in addition to the hippocampus. A. mumby nuclei B. basal forebrain C. mediodorsal nuclei of the thalamus D. rhinal cortexD. rhinal cortexThe results of delayed nonmatching-to-sample tests indicate that combined bilateral lesions of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial temporal cortex have similar effects on memory in humans, monkeys, and rats - namely: A. minor deficits but only at the longest retention intervals. B. minor deficits but only at the shortest retention intervals. C. major deficits at all but the longest retention intervals. D. major deficits at all but the shortest retention intervals.D. major deficits at all but the shortest retention intervals.Selective bilateral removal of the hippocampus without damaging adjacent medial temporal lobe structures produces ____________ on the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test and other tests of object recognition. A. severe deficits B. improvements C. modest deficits D. no deficitsC. modest deficitsPlace and grid cells are found in the _____ and attest to the structure's role in _____ processing. A. hippocampus; emotional B. amygdala; emotional C. hippocampus; spatial D. amygdala; spatialC. hippocampus; spatialIn the ____________________ water maze, intact rats placed at various locations in a circular pool of murky water rapidly learn to swim to a stationary platform hidden just below the surface. A. Morris B. Mumby C. radial D. murkyA. Morris________________ cells are entorhinal neurons that each have an extensive array of evenly spaced place fields, producing a pattern reminiscent of graph paper. A. Grid B. Graph C. Morris D. PlaceA. GridNeurons in the medial temporal lobes that are highly selective in terms of their responses to classes of test objects or individuals are known as: A. Hebb cells. B. Whoopi Goldberg neurons. C. Lisa Kudrow neurons. D. concept cells.D. concept cells.The optogenetic identification of an engram cell typically involves two stages in sequence: first a _________________ stage and then a ______________ stage. A. encoding; recall B. manipulate; tagging C. tagging; manipulate D. storage; recallC. tagging; manipulateNaya, Yoshida, and Miyashita (2001) recorded the responses of neurons while monkeys learned the relation between pairs of visual images. When the monkeys were required to recall that pair, activity was recorded in ____________ neurons before ____________ neurons. A. hippocampal; inferotemporal B. inferotemporal; hippocampal C. inferotemporal; perirhinal D. perirhinal; inferotemporalD. perirhinal; inferotemporalRats with ______________ lesions, unlike intact rats, do not respond with fear to a neutral stimulus that has previously been followed by electric foot shock. A. Amygdalar B. striatal C. hippocampal D. inferotemporalA. AmygdalarInvolvement of the ______________ during memory formation may account for the fact that emotion-provoking events are remembered better than neutral events. A. amygdala B. cerebellum C. perirhinal cortex D. inferotemporal cortexA. amygdalaPatients with large prefrontal lesions often have difficulty performing tasks that involve: A. a series of responses. B. visual stimuli. C. emotions. D. sensorimotor learning.A. a series of responses.The role of the ____________________ in the Pavlovian conditioning of the eye-blink response of rabbits has been intensively investigated. A. striatum B. cerebellum C. amygdala D. inferotemporal cortexB. cerebellumBliss and Lømø showed that there is a facilitation of synaptic transmission following high-frequency electrical stimulation applied to presynaptic neurons. This phenomenon has been termed: A. presynaptic facilitation. B. high-frequency facilitation. C. long-term potentiation. D. long-term modification.C. long-term potentiation.The fact that it ______ is one feature of long-term potentiation (LTP) that Hebb argued was an important property of learning and memory. A. develops only if the firing of the presynaptic neuron is preceded by the firing of the postsynaptic neuron B. occurs in the hippocampus C. can last for a long time D. occurs in the amygdalaC. can last for a long timeEven if glutamate binds to it, an NMDA receptor does not respond maximally unless ___________. A. the postsynaptic neuron already is partially hyperpolarized. B. its calcium channels are inhibited. C. the glutamate is sufficiently excitatory. D. the postsynaptic neuron already is partially depolarized.D. the postsynaptic neuron already is partially depolarized.The reason that the effects of long-term potentiation (LTP) at one synapse on a neuron do not spread to nearby synapses on the same neuron is likely because of: A. the NMDA receptor. B. calcium influx. C. glutamate inhibitor protein. D. dendritic spines.D. dendritic spines._________________ refers to the modulation of the ability to induce LTP at particular synapses. A. Metaplasticity B. Synaptic facilitation C. Neuroplasticity D. Long-term depression (LTD)A. MetaplasticityIn a study of infantile amnesia, children were shown a series of photographs of preschool-aged children, some of whom had been their preschool classmates. Whether they explicitly remembered a former classmate or not, they consistently displayed a _______________ to the photographs of their former classmates. A. large hippocampal fMRI signal B. weak skin conductance response C. large general fMRI signal D. large skin conductance responseD. large skin conductance response_________________ are substances (drugs, supplements, herbal extracts, etc.) that are thought to improve memory. A. Intelligence drugs B. IQ pills C. Nootropics D. NMDA receptor agonistsC. NootropicsAlthough smart pills are often marketed to healthy adults, most relevant research has been done on: A. nonhumans with exceptional memory. B. juvenile nonhumans. C. H.M. D. nonhumans or humans with memory difficulties.D. nonhumans or humans with memory difficulties.An advertisement touts a new nootropic supplement, or smart pill, promising to turbocharge one's memory and propel academic, career, and relationship success. Which statement is LEAST likely true of any research evaluating the new supplement? A. It lacks rigorous controls. B. It found only small effects. C. It was performed on healthy humans with normal memory function. D. It has few participants.C. It was performed on healthy humans with normal memory function.The presentation of R.M.'s posttraumatic amnesia was ironic because: A. R.M. had treated H.M. for epilepsy. B. one of the few things that R.M. could remember during his confusion was the case of H.M. C. H.M. also had a brain injury from skiing. D. H.M. also was a biopsychologist.B. one of the few things that R.M. could remember during his confusion was the case of H.M.H.M.'s digit span performance was: A. better than 90 percent of persons tested. B. within the normal range. C. lower than 90 percent of persons tested. D. difficult to assess due to fluctuations in his performance.B. within the normal range.Semantic memories are ___________ memories. A. short-term B. episodic C. explicit D. implicitC. explicitTransient global amnesia is defined by its: A. unusually long duration. B. often imperceptible occurrence. C. clear link to significant traumatic brain injury. D. sudden onset in the absence of any obvious causeD. sudden onset in the absence of any obvious causeDuring the early stages of Korsakoff's syndrome, _________________ amnesia for _____ episodic memory is the MOST prominent symptom. A. retrograde; implicit B. anterograde; implicit C. anterograde; explicit D. retrograde; explicitC. anterograde; explicitPosttraumatic amnesia can be induced by: A. repetition priming. B. electroconvulsive shock. C. alcohol. D. thiamine.B. electroconvulsive shock.____________ is/are produced by electroconvulsive shock in humans and other animals. A. Psychoses B. Temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia C. Spatial gradients of anterograde amnesia D. Place cell depletionB. Temporal gradients of retrograde amnesiaTemporal gradients of retrograde amnesia provide evidence for: A. consolidation. B. the transfer of memory. C. microstrokes. D. degeneration.A. consolidation.Large deficits in delayed nonmatching-to-sample are caused by bilateral lesions to the: A. hippocampus. B. medial temporal lobe cortex. C. corpus callosum. D. amygdala.B. medial temporal lobe cortex.Grid cells are: A. Schwann cells. B. entorhinal cortex neurons. C. hippocampal neurons. D. place cells.B. entorhinal cortex neurons.The hippocampus plays a major role in memory for: A. spatial location. B. emotional significance. C. words. D. faces.A. spatial location.The ____________ is thought to play a role in memory for the emotional significance of experiences. A. inferotemporal cortex B. amygdala C. cerebellum D. hippocampusB. amygdalaWhich test involves the use of a hidden platform? A. Morris water maze B. radial arm maze C. repetition priming test D. delayed nonmatching-to-sample testA. Morris water mazeThe induction of LTP at synapses with NMDA receptors depends on the influx of: A. potassium ions into the presynaptic neuron. B. sodium ions into the postsynaptic neuron. C. calcium ions into the presynaptic neuron. D. calcium ions into the postsynaptic neuron.D. calcium ions into the postsynaptic neuron.The flip side of long-term potentiation (LTP) is known as ____ and occurs in response to prolonged low-frequency stimulation of presynaptic neurons. A. high-frequency potentiation (HFP) B. metaplasticity C. long-term depression (LTD) D. low-frequency potentiation (LFP)C. long-term depression (LTD)The research of Newcombe and her colleagues (e.g., Newcombe, 2000) reveals that infantile amnesia is: A. a misnomer, as explicit memory for events during infancy and early childhood are preserved despite the absence of implicit memories. B. pervasive, as neither explicit nor implicit memory is preserved for events during infancy and early childhood. C. a misnomer, as implicit memory for events during infancy and early childhood are preserved even in the absence of explicit memories. D. a myth, as both explicit and implicit memory are preserved for events during infancy and early childhood.C. a misnomer, as implicit memory for events during infancy and early childhood are preserved even in the absence of explicit memories.