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124 terms

Chapter 10 The Endocrine System Vocabulary

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norepinephrine
noradrenalin
epinephrine
adrenaline
throtropin-releasing hormone
TRH
growth hormone
GH
antidiuretic hormone (ABV.)
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
vassopressin
prolactin inhibiting hormone
PIH
prolactin-releasing hormone
PRH
thyrotropin-releasing hormone
TRH
coticotropin-releasing hormone
CRH
Adrenocorticotropic
ACTH
growth hormone inhibiting hormone
GHIH
growth hormone releasing hormone
GHRH
insulin-like growth factors
IGF's
prostaglandins
PG
somatostatin
Delta cells are:
Insulin
Beta cells are:
glucagon
Alpha cells are:
parathyroid
PTH
interstitial cell stimulating hormone (aka= LH)
ICSH
luteinizing hormone
LH
thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH
adrenocorticoptric hormone
ACTH
follicle-stimulating hormone
FSH
pituitary dwarfism
hyposecretion of growth hormone results in:
diabetes type 2
insulin is produced but can not exert its effects on cells because of a loss of insulin receptors on onset gradually risk, family history and over weight
diabetes type 1
destruction of beta cells of the islets of longerhans and complete lack of insulin; onset usually abrupt
steriod harmones
soluable lipids of the cell membrane and diffuse easily into a target cell
protein hormones
bond to receptors of the cell membrane and the hormone is called the 1st messenger
cyclic AMP
a chemical that is the 2nd messenger in a two messenger mechanism of hormone action; formed from ATP and stimulates characteristic cellular responses to the hormone
receptor
a specialized cell or nerve ending that responds to a particular change such as light, sound, heat, touch, or pressure
pineal gland
an endocrine gland on the posterior wall of the third ventricle of the brain secretes melatonin
melatonin
a hormone produced by the pineal gland; influences sleep cycles
testes
endocrine glands that secrete the hormone tetosterone
testes
the male gonads that produce sperm cells
inhibin
a protein hormone secreted by the sustentacular cells of the testes and by the ovaries; inhibits secretion of folliclee stimulating hormones
progesterone
the sex hormone secretd by the corpus luteum of theovary and by the placenta contributes o the growth of endometrium and the maintance of pregnancy
secondary sex characteristics
the features that develope at puberty in males and females; they are under hormones but are not directly involved in reproduction examples growth of body hair and muscles
ovary
endocrine gland that produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone
ovary
the female gonad that produces ova
histamine
an inflammatory chemical released by damaged tissues as part of innate immunity; stimulates increased capillary premeability and vasodilation
anti-inflammatory effect
to lessen the process of inflammation; cortisol is the hormone that has this effect
angiotensin 2
the final product of the renin-angiotensin mechanism; stimulates vasoconstriction and increased secretion of aldosterone, both of which help raise blood pressure
renin-angiotensin mechanism
a series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidneys to secrete the enezyme renin; culminates in the formation of angiotensin 2
mineralocorticoid
aldosterone=
aldosterone
a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases the reabsorbtion of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidneys
glucocorticoids
cortisol=
cortisol
a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex tat promotes the efficient use of nutrients in the stressfu situations and has an anti-inflammatory effect
mineralocorticoids
the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that affect fluid-electrolyte balnce; aldosterone is the major hormone in this group
adrenal cortex
the outher layer of the adrenal glands which secretes cortisol and aldosterone
diabetes mellitus
hyposecretion of insulin by the ancreas or the inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by the hyperglycmia, increased urine output with glycosuria urine
epinephrine
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that stimulates many responses that enable the body to react to a stressful situation
norephrine
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that causes vasocontriction through out the body which raises blood pressure in stressful situations
adrenal medulla
the inner layer of the adrenal glands secretes epinephrine
suprarenal glands
another name for adrenal glands is:
adrenal glands
the endocrine glands located on the top of the kidneys; each consists of an adrenal cortext which secretes cortisol and aldosterone, and an adrenal medulla which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
pancreas
an exocrine glan that secretes digestive enzymes for the digestion of starch, fats and protiens
pancreas
an endocrine gland located between the curve of the deudenum and the spleen
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to lack of dietary iodine
parathyroid glands
secrets parathyroid hormones
parathyroid glands
the four endocrine glands located on the posterior side of the thyroid glands
parathyroid hormones
a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones and the absorbtion of calcium by the small intestines and kidneys
calcitonin
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that decreases the reabsorbtion of calcium from bones
T3
triiodothyronine
triiodothyronine T3
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases energy production and protein synthesis
T4
thyroxine
thyroxine T4
a hormone secreted by the thyroid fland that increases energy production and protein synthesis
amines
simple hormones that are structual variations ofthe amino acid tyrosine
steroids
an organic compound in the lipid group; includes cholesterol and the sex hormones
peptide bond
a chemical bond that links two amino acids in a protien molecule
peptide
short chains of amino acids
releasing hormone or releasing factors
hormones release by the hypothalmys that stimulates secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland
neurohyphpophysis
the posterior pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
the anterior pituitory gland
vasopressin
antidiuretic hormone
somatostatin
growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH); produced by the hypothalmus
somatostatin
the hormone produced by the delta cells of the pancreas
somatotropin
growth hormone
luteinizing hormone
a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that, in men stimulates secretion of testosterone by the testes or, in women stimulates ovulation and secretion of pogesterone by corpus luteum in the ovary
gonadotropin-releasing hormne (GnRH)
the secreation of FSH is stimulated by the hypothalmus which produces:
gonadotropic hormone (gonads)
a hormone that has its effects on the ovaries
follicle stimulating hormone
a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior pitutary gland that initiates the production of ova in the ovaries or sperm in the testes
prolactin
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates milk production by the mammory glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
thyroid stimulating hormone
a hormone sereted by the anterior pitutary gland that causes the thyroid gland to secrete triidothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4
growth hormone (GH)
a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that increases the rate of cell division and protein synthesis
hypophyseal portal system
the pathway of circulation in which releasing hormones from the hypothalamus circulate directly to the anterior pituitary glands
oxytocin
a hormone produced by the hypothalmus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the myometrium during labor and release of milk by the mammory glands
osmoreceptors
specialized cells in the hypothalmus that detect changes n the water content of the body
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone produced by the hypothalmus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; increases the reabsorbtion of water by the kidney tubules and in large amounts causes vasoconstriction and is called vasopressin
negative feedback mechanism
a controle system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there is for the response
protein
an organic compound made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; 50 to 200 chains in these hormones
hormone
a chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs
endocrine system
the organ system that consists of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones into the blood
endocrine gland
a ductless gland that secretes its product (hormone) directly into the blood
pituitary gland or hypophysis
an endocrine gland located below the hypothalmus, consisting of anterior and posterior lobes
myxedema
hyposecretion of thyroxine in an adult; decreased metabolic rate results in physical and mental lethargy
ketoacidosis
a metabolic acidosis that results from the accumalation of ketones in the blood where fats and proteins are used for energy production
Graves Disease
hypersecreation of thyroxine believed to be an autoimmune disease; symptoms reflect the elevated metabolic rate
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland often due to a lack of dietary iodine
giantism
excessive growth of the body or its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood
diabetes mellitus
hyposecretion of insulin by the pancrease or inability of insulin to exert its effects; characterized by hyperglycemia increased urinary output with glycosuria and thirst
cushings syndrome
hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids of the adrenal cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities
cretinism
hyposecretion of thyroxine in an infant; if uncorrected the effect is severe mental and physical retardation
addisons disease
the hyposecretion of the hormonesof the adrenal cortex characterized by low blood pressure,dehydration, muscle weakness and mental lethargy
acromegaly
hypersecretion of the growth hormone in an adult resulting in excessive growth of the bones of the face, hands, and feet
target organ or target tissue
the organ or tissue in which a hormone exerts its specific effects
sympathomimetic
having the same effects as a sympathetic impulses as has epinephrine a hormone of the adrenal medulla
Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism
a series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidney to secrete the enzyme renin; culminates in the form of anigiontensin 2
prostaglandins
locally acting hormone-like substances produced by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cells membranes; the many types have varried functions
islets of langerhans or pancreatic islets
the endocrine portions of the pancrease that secrete insulin and glucagon
hypophysis
the pituitary gland
hypoglycemia
a low blood glucose level
hypocalcemia
a low blood calcium level
hyperglycemia
a high blood glucose level
hypercalcemia
a high blood calcium level
glycogenolysis
the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production
glycogenesis
the conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy
gluconeogenesis
the conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production
glucocorticoids
the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that affect the metabolism of nutrients; corotisol is the major hormone of this group
Corpus luteum
the temporary endocrine gland formed from an ovarian follicle that has released an ovum; secretes progesterone and estrogen
catecholamine
epinphrine and norepinephrine the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla
beta cells
the cells of islets of langerhans that secrete the hormone insulin
alpha cells
the cells of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucagen