Exam 1

The delegates who framed the 1876 constitution were primarily concerned with protecting the rights of farmers and ________.
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All of Texas's constitutions have tended to reflect Texans' ______.opposition to strong governmentThe Supreme Court case, South Dakota v. Dole, is an example ofCoercive FederalismThe Texas Constitution shares which of the following in common with the U.S. Constitution?Both documents include a system of checks and balances.According to the U.S. Constitution, ______.the federal constitution supersedes state constitutionsThe government of Texas derives its power from the will of the people, therefore, it is based upon the ______.principle of popular sovereigntyConsider the four major themes of the current Texas constitution. Limited power of the state government and popular control of the government exemplifies which of the following characteristics?its distrust of governmentEconomic interest groups in Texas include ______.professional groups such as the Texas State Teachers AssociationElectioneering is a technique used to ______.influence which candidates win officeIn Texas law, ______ is the method used by organized interests to try to shape public policy by influencing those elected or appointed to office, by telephone, telegraph, or letters.lobbyingIndependent political expenditures have been ______.protected by the courtsOrganizations that pursue noneconomic policies on behalf of the citizens of Texas are known as ______.public interest groupsOrganized interests ______.are simply a different name for interest groupsPAC stands for ______.political action committeeProfessional associations address the needs of ______.professionals not represented by unionsPublic interest groups support ______.noneconomic policiesThe U.S. Supreme Court argued that this amendment prohibited them from restricting independent political expenditures.FirstWhich of the following describes labor unions?organizations that represent the interests of working people seeking better pay and better working conditionsWhich organization is responsible for overseeing lobbying in the state of Texas?the Texas Ethics CommissionThe ______ perspective supports the idea that citizens participating through interest groups is positive.pluralistThe theory that groups arise from an increasingly complex society to voice their concerns is called disturbance theory.TrueWhy do interest groups and political parties often find themselves at odds?They can have different ends: parties seek to win elections while interest groups seek to promote their agenda.Why do organized interests offer selective incentives?to overcome the free-rider problemCitizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) allowed ______ to purchase political advertising directly.corporations and unionsAt national conventions today, ______.the presidential campaign organization tends to dominateDiscovering and recruiting candidates to run for elected office is one of the roles of a political party.TrueIn the early twentieth century, if you wanted to exercise political influence you needed to vote primarily in which party's primary?DemocraticPrecinct-level conventions may be held on the same day as ______.primariesTexas's "sore loser law" prohibits someone from voting or running in the primary of one party and later running for office under the label of another party in the same year.TrueWhat issue would eventually split the Democratic Party in Texas and throughout the South?civil rightsWhat would make a runoff primary necessary?no candidate in the primary election receiving a majorityWhich candidate won the popular vote in the state's Democratic presidential primary but did not win the majority of the 228 delegates Texas sent to the Democratic National Convention?Hillary ClintonWhich of the following best describes a grassroots organization?a group in which decision making resides with average citizensWhich of the following effects does one-party dominance have on electoral competition?It focuses competition on the party nomination process.If you were a Texas voter interested in reforming the political party system, what action should you take?Organize voters and other interested groups around particular policies.For members of third parties, what is one of the biggest hurdles to get over?getting on the ballotLosers in the current Texas political party system include ______.political independentsRunoff primaries occur when no nominee receives the majority of the votes in a primary election.TrueWhich of the following is NOT a function of political parties?to build cohesion between the state party and the directives of the national partyA candidate who runs for office without seeking a party nomination is known as a(an) ______.independent candidateIn Texas, primary elections, in most instances, are direct primaries.TrueIn general, voter turnout in special elections is relatively high.FalseIn most elections in which an incumbent is running, the incumbent possesses a significant advantage over their challengers.TrueIn which year was the Voting Rights Act passed?1965Texas is one of eleven states that allows voter registration on the same day as an election.FalseTexas law requires that candidates running for office must be affiliated with a political party.FalseThe candidate who already holds the office that is up for election is called the ______.incumbentTo register to vote in Texas, a person must be a citizen of the United States, be at least eighteen years of age, and have resided in Texas for at least thirty days.TrueWhat happens in a closed primary election?Only members of a political party are allowed to vote.What happens in an open primary election?Voters do not have to declare party affiliation to participate.What is the "sore loser law"?provision that prevents a candidate from running as an independent candidate in a general election after losing in a primary electionWhat shifted many Roman Catholics toward the Republican Party?conservative positions on social issuesWhat was the outcome of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission?Free speech protection was extended to unions and corporations.What historically contributed to differences in voter participation between different groups in Texas?institutional barriers to votingWhen must a candidate disclose the source of a contribution?Candidates must disclose the source when the contribution is over $50.A court with original jurisdiction hears only ______ cases.initialA court's jurisdiction defines that court's ______.sphere of authorityAppellate jurisdiction tells us the court in which a case begins.FalseTexas's highest appellate court level ______.is the Supreme Court of Texas and the Texas Court of Criminal AppealsWhich of the following is an alternative method of judicial selection compared to what Texas uses today?all judges being appointed with no election processYou have received a citation issued by a city police officer. Where will your case be heardmunicipal courtYou preside over a justice of the peace court. Which of the following is an example of the duties you are called upon to perform in this position?notary publicA preponderance of evidence is a key measure of evidence during a ______.civil trialJudicial federalism describes a system in which judicial authority is ______shared among levels of governmentJudicial federalism involves ______.multiple levels of courtsJustices who disagree with the court's reasoning in a case issue a dissenting opinion.FalseThe lack of official record keeping by lower courts forces appellate courts to hear the cases ______.de novoWhen a municipal ordinance is violated, which court has original jurisdiction?municipalWhen big donors contribute to judicial campaigns, who loses?individual TexansCounty-level courts typically hear appeals from municipal courts.TrueDamages designed to punish the defendant in a civil case are called ______.punitive damages