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In the late 1980's, the US pressured this country to overthrow General Manuel Noriega who had seized power and threatened US interests. In 1980, US inviaded this country.


- only nation to have atlantic/pacific coastlines
- provides only land entrance to the continent from panama
- *emeralds* 90%
- drugssss
- among the first nation to have a commercial airline

French Guiana

- it was a penal colony
- "devil's island" was a pretty badass prison, and prisoners hated it because they were political prisoners from france
- Kourou is now the launching site for a space agency


- formerly british
- resembles an asian country
- asians (60%) vs. black (40%)
- slaves replaced by asians
- in the 1970's, it attracted religious cults such as....
- jonestown (massacre) american leader had everyone kill using arsenic in koolaid


- 30% hindu
- many ethnic groups: hindu, black, na's, chinese, euros
- black decendents called bush negroes live like na's


- worlds first oil exporting nation


- 5th largest nation in the world
- borders every coutnry ***except equador and chile
- in 1822, gained independence from portugal and became south america's only monarchy
- rio (original capital) replaced by brasilia
- hydroelectric power


- poorest country in south america
- ***lost 2 wars to chile and paraguay
- land locked (no water)
- named after Simon Bolivar (like george wash.) who broguht an end to spanish rule
- two capitals (la paz + sucre)


- marxist
- chile had political freedom until a marxist was overthrown by the millitary
- freedom began with... bernardo o'higgans
- ***easter island lies next to the mainland


- means "equator" in spanish
- quito is the capital
- "city of eternal spring" because of high altitude
- owns the galapagos islands


- emperor's new groove!
- the western hemisphere's oldest continously inhabited city (cuzco)
- lot of fish
- lot of birds
- lot of bird ****
- they sell bird **** (guano) in the fertilizing industry


- world's leading beef exporter
- Juan Peron --> heavily taxed agriculture to pay for social programs.
- his wife, Eva, was really charismatic and everyone liked her, but she got a brain tumor and died
- falkland islands, british possesion, has lots of sheep. argentina tried to capture is but failed.


- Gran Chaco to the west and the Oriental to the east
- everyone thought there was oil, but there wasn't
- grows the "axbreaker" tree


- called the "switzerland of america"
- prosperous agricultural economy
- nation with the most political prisoners in the world

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