Survey of Human Disease Ch. 1-3 Study Guide

1 / 135
Describe how disease are recognized
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (135)
Auscultationlistening to the lungs, heart, and intestines, allows evaluation of the frequency, intensity, duration, number, and quality of sounds originating in the bodyPercussionproducing sounds by tapping on specific areas of the body with fingers, hands, or small instrument which allows for the evaluation of the size, consistency, and borders of the body organs and presence or absence of fluid in the bodyVital signspulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and temp are measures of various physiological statistics in order to assess the most basic body functionsCytologystudy of cellsMammographyx-ray used to screen for breast cancer and can determine a breast lump before it becomes palpableBreast cancer stats1 in 8 women will develop invasive breast cancer, 200,000 women are diagnosed each year with breast cancerX-raysvisualize internal structuresCT-Scansuses computers and x-rays to create 3-D images of internal structuresMRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)analyzes tissue responses to a strong magnetic field to create images of internal structuresPET Scana biologically active molecule is attached to a positron emitting radionuclide which is an indicator of metabolic activityFNA (Fine Needle Aspiration)the goal is to obtain cells from suspicious lesions, send them to a lab, and the microscopically examine the cells and establish diagnosisMortalitynumbers of deaths in a populationMorbidityliving with the effects of a disease, incidence of a diseaseIncidencepercentage of new cases of a diseasePrevalencepercentage of population that is affected by a disease (past and present)Epidemiologythe study of the occurrence, transmission, distribution, and control of diseaseIdiopathic diseasea disease where the cause is unknownDescribe homeostasisrelatively stable internal conditions in which the human body performs its usual functions, can be used to recognize the presence of disease in the body and more precisely describe it (a significant disturbance in homeostasis of the body leads to disease)What are the different causes of diseasehereditary, congenital, degenerative, inflammatory, autoimmune, allergic, neoplastic, metabolic, traumatic, nutritionalHereditary cause of diseaseabnormality in an individuals genes of chromosomesCongenital cause of diseaseexist or date from birth; can be acquired through hereditary or acquired during development in the uterusDegenerative cause of diseasefunction or structure of the affected tissues or organs progressively deteriorates over timeInflammatory, autoimmune, allergic cause of diseaseresult of abnormal immune function; infectious diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria and virusesNeoplastic cause of diseaseresult from abnormal growth that leads to the formation of tumorsMetabolic cause of diseasedisruption of normal metabolism, the process of converting food to energy on a cellular levelTraumatic cause of diseasephysical or chemical injuryNutritional cause of diseaseover or underconsumption of nutrientsWhat are the risk factors for diseaseenvironmental, chemical, physiological, psychological, geneticHow to reduce risk of disease riskbe physically active, eat wisely, maintain a healthy weight, be tobacco free, limit alcohol, get recommended screenings, manage stressHow does being physically active reduce disease riskdecreases the risk for developing depression, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, obesity, stroke, and some kinds of cancer more than 1/3 of adults do not meet minimum recommendations for physical activityHow does eating wisely reduce disease riskdecreases the risk for heart disease, stroke, some cancers, diabetes and osteoporosis 60% of children and young adults consume more than the dietary guidelines 22% of high school students eat five or more servings of vegetables per dayHow does maintaining a healthy weight reduce disease riskdecreases risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and some types of cancers 1/3 of US adults and 17% of children are obese in the US lowering body weight by 5-10% can lower blood pressure, reduce LDL cholesterol, improve glucose tolerance, and lower heart diseaseHow does being tobacco free reduce the risk for diseasemost avoidable cause of disease, disability, and death in the US 1 in 10 adults die from tobacco use decreases risk for some cancers, heart disease, heart attack, stroke, and COPDHow does limiting alcohol reduce the risk for diseasedecreases risk for cirrhosis, pancreatitis, high blood pressure, some cancersHow does managing stress reduce the risk for diseasedecreases risk for depression, heart disease, some cancers, progression of HIV/AIDSPrognosispredicted outcomeAcute diseasesudden onset and short durationTerminal diseasea slower, less severe onset and longer duration of months or years 7 in 10 deaths in the US 6 in 10 deaths worldwideRemissionperiod during which its signs and symptoms subside or disappearExacerbationat times when signs and symptoms may grow more severeRelapsedescribes the return of a disease weeks or months after its apparent cureComplicationa related disease or other abnormal state that develops in a person already suffering from a disease (person confined to a bed with a serious fracture may develop serious pneumonia)Sequelaaftermath of a particular diseaseWhat are the two types of immunityNonspecific immunity and specific immunityImmunitybody's ability to resist infectious diseaseAntigenany foreign substance that, when introduced to the body, is recognized as "non-self" and activates the immune systemDescribe nonspecific immunity (innate immunity)always prepared to defend the body, the immune system that you are born with, and the first line of defense, including the physical protective barriers, phagocytes, macrophages, complements, natural killer cells, and interferonsDescribe specific immunitymust be primed by an initial exposure to an antigen before it can protect the body against disease caused by that particular antigen; two parts include humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity; includes B and T cellsDescribe humoral immunity as part of the specific immune systemB lymphocytes (B cells); due to the action of antibodies which are proteins produced by B cells; triggered by the first exposure to a pathogenDescribe cell-mediated immunity as part of the specific immune systemprovides a defense against viruses, abnormal cells, and is the arm of the immune system responsible for rejecting tissue grafts; T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunityWhere do T-cells originateoriginate in bone marrow, and enter the thymus where they develop the ability to react with a unique antigenWhere do B-cells originatedevelop in the bone marrow where the gain the ability to recognize unique antigensOnce B and T cells develop in the bone marrow, where to they travel tothe lymph and spleenHow do B cells become activatedextracellular antigens directly activate a B cell by binding to a receptor on the surface of the B cell, the activated B cell then starts to reproduce identical clones which are plasma cells and memory B cellsHow do T cells become activatedbecome activated by an antigen when it is engulfed and digested by a phagocyte and present to a T cell; the activated cell then divides and produces more T cells and memory T cellsWhat is the purpose of memory cellsmemory B and T cells are created in a preventative measure by allowing the body to have a faster more in depth response to the antigen in the futureHow are cytotoxic T cells activatedactivated by antigens displayed on infected cells, abnormal cells, and transplanted organs and tissuesWhat are the protective barriers present in the bodyskin (physical and chemical), secretions(tears, sweat, sebum, saliva all contain chemicals that destroy foreign invaders) , mucous membranes (line all body passages open to the exterior and produce mucous which traps foreign materials), cilia hairs (line respiratory tract sweep out debris and pathogens)Describe the inflammatory response of the bodyFirst damaged cells release chemical signals to the body which triggers both histamines and kinins. These chemicals cause blood vessels in the area to dilate and become more permeable (this causes redness, heat, swelling, and pain), phagocytes are also called to the area as well as clotting proteins are activated and begin to wall of damaged areasWhat is a polymorphonuclear leukocyteone of the primary cells involved in the inflammatory reaction, also known as a neutrophilWhat does a polymorphonuclear leukocyte docontains lysosomes in its cytoplasm which help break down diseaseLeukocyteswhite blood cellsNatural Killer Cellstype of leukocyte that recognize and eliminate virus-infected cells and cancer cells, they secrete chemicals that cause pores to form in the membrane of a target cell leading to its deathInterferonsantiviral proteins produced by some animal cells after viral infection, they stimulate nearby uninfected cells to resist viral infection, they also increase the activity of macrophages and natural killer cellsHelper T cellsbecome activated by an antigen that was engulfed and digested by a phagocyte and presented to a helper T cellMemory T cellscells that retain the antibodies to a certain antigen so that when there is a second infection there is a faster response time in the bodyB cellscreate humoral immunity, type of white blood cell, produce antibodies which provide defense against extracellular antigensDescribe type I allergic reactionslocal allergy that occurs rapidly, triggered by IgE that responds to the presence of antigens, the IgE binds to mast cells and induces them to release histamine and other potent chemicals responsible for allergy symptoms, histamine dilates the blood vessels which causes them to leak plasma into the tissue, the tissue fluid causes edema which causes welts and itching of hivesDescribe type II allergic reactionsanaphylaxis (systemic acute allergic response) which causes a sudden drop in blood pressure, narrowing of the airways, rapid and weak pulse, hives, and nausea and vomiting; it is usually treated with antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrineDescribe type I hypersensitivitymost common, local allergy, hives or anaphylaxisDescribe type II hypersensitivitycytotoxic hypersensitivity; IgM or IgG causes destruction of cells (response to transfusions, organ transplants); cells clump together and lyseDescribe type III hypersensitivityimmune complex hypersensitivity; antigens combine with many antibodies in the blood which forma soluble mass of antigens and antibodies known as immune complexes; immune complexes deposit in tissues and blood vessels where they trigger inflammation and tissue destructionDescribe type IV hypersensitivitydelayed hypersensitivity; delay occurs due to the actions of the T cells which require time to recognize the allergen, reproduce and differentiate, and bring about the allergy symptomsWhat is the difference between AIDS and HIV?HIV is the term for when someone is infected and has a CD4 count above 200; once their CD4 count drops below 200 they are diagnosed with AIDSHIV statsinfects nearly 7,000 people (300 people per hour)- 34 million live with the diseaseDescribe the primary stage of HIVfollows exposure, lasts a few weeks, accompanied by flu-like symptomsDescribe the secondary stage of HIVclinically asymptomatic stage lasts and average of 10 years; patients do not have symptoms but they can transmit infection and HIV continues to multiply (infecting and killing hyper T cells)Describe the third stage of HIVsymptomatic HIV when an infected HIV patient experiences symptoms but has not developed AIDS; opportunistic infections (diarrhea, fever or night sweat, fatigue or joint pain, oral infections, enlarged lymph nodes, skin problems)Describe the fourth stage of HIVHIV to AIDSHow is HIV diagnosedusing the Enzyme-linked Autoimmune Essay (ELISA) which detects HIV antibodies in the blood, most people produce antibodies within 3 months of being infected; a positive ELISA result is confirmed using the Western blot testHow does cell-mediated immunity become achievedwhen B cells and T cells develop the ability to recognize antigensHow is lupus diagnosedoccurs between the ages of 15 and 44, difficult to diagnosis, begins with medical history, no single test confirms diagnosis; use the 1997 update of the 1982 revised criteria for the classification of the SLE to aid in SLE diagnosis; a complete blood count, urinalysis, autoantibody testing, measurement of general levels of inflammation, and biopsy may be performed; chronic and relapsingWhat are the two forms of sclerodermaLocalized scleroderma (LSc) and Systemic sclerosis scleroderma (SSc)Describe localized scleroderma (LSc)Appears as waxy patches (morphea) or streaks on the skin (linear scleroderma), tends to stop progressing or regress without treatment, can be progressive and disfiguring which can require treatment to control disease activityWhat is the difference between LSc and SScSSc involves the internal organs as well as the skin whereas LSc only involves the skinWhat are the two types of SScLimited sclerosis SSc (lcSSc) and Diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc)Describe lcSScskin tightening is confined to fingers, hands, and arms below the elbow (may involve tightening of skin on the feet and legs below the knees)Describe dcSScskin tightening is confined to fingers, hands, and arms below the elbow (may involve tightening of skin on the feet and legs below the knees) as well as the skin on the trunk, above the elbows and on the knees are also infectedCompare the 10 year survival rates of dcSSc and lcSSclcSSc- 71% dcSSc- 21% (patients with dcSSc are at a greater risk for significant organ dysfunction)What are the signs and symptoms of sclerodermasecondary Raynaud's phenomenon, thickening and tightening of the skin of the fingers, and pain in two or more jointsEtiology of sclerodermaidiopathicHow do you diagnose sclerodermamedical history and physical exam, autoantibody testing , there is no cureWhat are the characteristics of Sjorgen's syndromechronic, slow progression, autoimmune disease, affects the exocrine glands and about 4 million people in the US have it (90% are women)What are the symptoms of Sjorgen's syndromedry eyes and mouth, may cause kidney complications, GI complications, blood vessel complications, liver complications, pancreas complications, CNS complicationsWhat is the etiology of Sjorgen's syndromeidiopathic but genetic factors, hormones, environmental factors may play a roleWhat can you do to manage symptoms of Sjorgen's syndromeOTC and prescriptions for dry eyes and dry mouth, NSAIDs, immunosuppressive drugs, vasodilators to treat Raynaud's, other treatments for heartburn and blood pressureWhat are the signs and symptoms of Hodgkin's Lymphomapainless swelling of lymph nodes, fatigue, unexplained fever, soaking night sweats, itchy skin, coughing, trouble breathing, chest pain, unexplained weight lossWhat are the stats of Hodgkin's Lymphomacancer of the immune system, diagnosed in teens and adults between 15 and 40 and after 55 (9,290 cases in 2013)What marks the diagnosis of Hodgkin's Lymphomapresence of Reed-Sternberg cellWhat is the etiology of Hodgkin's LymphomaidiopathicHow is Hodgkin's Lymphoma diagnosedphysical exam, complete blood count, biopsy to confirm presence of Reed-Sternberg Cells, imaging tests and bone marrow biopsy may be performed to stage the diseaseWhat is the treatment for Hodgkin's Lymphomachemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, stem cell transplantWhat is the 5 year survival rate for Hodgkin's Lymphoma65-90%What are the stats for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and characteristicscancer of the lymphocytes; 355,900 cases worldwide with 69,740 cases; diagnosed 60 or olderWhat are the risk factors for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomaweakened immune system, certain infections (human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Epstein-Barr virus, helicobacter pylori, Hep C, HIV)What are the signs and symptoms of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomapainless swelling of lymph nodes, fatigue, pain, unexplained fever, soaking night sweats, itchy skin, coughing, trouble breathing, chest pain, swelling or feeling of fullness in the abdomen, unexplained weight lossWhat is the etiology of Non-Hodgkin's LymphomaidiopathicHow is Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma diagnosedphysical exam, complete blood count, lactate dehydrogenase (tissue damage), biopsy, imaging tests, bone marrow biopsy, and lumbar puncture are used to stage the diseaseWhat is the treatment of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomaradiation therapy, chemotherapy anti-inflammatory medication, stem cell transplant, monoclonal antibody therapyEndemicwhen a disease always occurs at low levels, or the same levels, in a populationEpidemican unusual increase of cases in an area (does not cross international borders)Pandemican unusual increase of cases in a large area (typically crosses international borders)Outbreakwhen a disease suddenly occurs in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then subsidesNotifiable diseasescertain infectious disease that physicians must report to the CDCResevoirsource of an infectious agentHorizontal transmissiontransmission of an infectious disease from a reservoir to a susceptible humanFomitescontaminated inanimate objects that can also transmit disease/infectionsVertical transmissionwhen a disease is transmitted from one generation to the nextParenteralwhen punctures, injections, bites, and surgery can allow microorganisms to be deposited directly into the tissues below the skinWhat are three ways to control diseaseimmunization, isolation, vector controlImmunizationpreventative measure in which the population is exposed to viruses and bacterial diseases through vaccination or inoculation in order to stimulate the body to produce memory B cells and T cells so that if that person is exposed to the pathogen again the body will react more quickly preventing severe infection or infection at all; reduces the number of people who are susceptible to diseaseIsolationwhen someone who has the disease is confined to a hospital or self-isolating in order to prevent their ability to infect others in day-to-day life; may be necessary if the organism is highly infectious; reduce the exposure risk of susceptible persons who are at risk for contracting the infectionVector Controlreduces indirect transmissionWhat is a chancrepainless ulcer which occur 2-10 weeks after intercourse with someone who has syphilisWhat is the primary course of syphilisdevelopment of a chancre 2-10 weeks after intercourse with someone who has syphilis, it is transmitted by direct mucous membrane contact of the