Bio Chapter 3 The Cell

What produces ATP?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 83
Terms in this set (83)
Provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions.atpProduced in the nucleus, this molecule specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be mademessenger rnamay be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasmRibosomal RNAChromosomes uncoil to form chromatintelophaseChromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cellanaphasenuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegratelate prophaseChromosomes align on the spindle equatormetaphaseCentrioles move to opposite ends of the cellearly prophasethis organelle modifies, concentrates, and packages the proteins and lipids made at the RER for domestic use or exportGolgi apparatusthe organelle that facilitates peptic bond formation between amino acidsribosomesThis organelle contains oxidases and catalasesperoxisomesThis is an elaborate network of rods and accessory proteins found in the cytosol that support cellular structures and provide the machinery to generate various cell movements, as well as provide the roads for vesicular traffickingcytoskeletonthe vast majority of the cells genetic material is housed herenucleusHelp prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cellstight junctionstypes of anchoring junctionsgap junctionsAllows ions and small molecules to pass through from one cell to junctionsPresent in electrically excitable junctionsAbundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress.desmosomesWhich of the following is false regarding the membrane potential?the resting membrane is maintained solely by passive transport processesWhich vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?phagocytosisIn certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.the smooth erThe RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.t RNAA red blood cell placed in pure water would....swell and burstWhich of the following describes the plasmic membrane?a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cellWhich of the following structures would aid a cell in the allowing more nutrients to be absorbed by the cell?microvilliWhich of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?the greater the concentration gradient the faster the rateIn a tissue type that undergoes a relatively great deal of mechanical stress, like the tissue that lines the intestine, you would expect to see an abundance of _______ between the Individual cells of the tissue.desmosomesIf cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?the cells will swell and ultimately burstRiboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to _________.changes in the environmentWhich of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?molecular transport through the membraneWhich of the following would NOT be a constituent of a plasma membrane?messenger rnamitosisis the division of the genetic material with the nucleusThe electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure iscentrioleWhich of these is an inclusion not an organelle?melaninWhich of the following is NOT a factor that binds cells together?glycolipids in the glycocalyxIf the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?UGCAAWhich transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?receptor mediated endocytosisPassive membrane transport processes include ________.the use of transport protein when moving substances from areas of low to high concentrationWhich of the following is not a function of the smooth ER?protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomesMitochondriacontain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own functionPeroxisomesable to detoxify substance by enzymatic actionWhich of the following is not a function of lysosomes?help in formation of cell membranesIn which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosome line up along the midline or equator of the cell?metaphaseWhich of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane structure?phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble moleculesWhich of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as second messengers?Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengersWhich organelle is responsible for processing and packaging proteins destined for export from cell?Golgi apparatusThe functions of centrioles include ________.organizing the mitotic spindle in cell divisionA gene can best be defined as ________.a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chainCrenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ________.a hypertonic solutionSome hormones enter cells via ________.receptor-mediated endocytosisIf a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.TCGWhich of the following is not one of the concepts collectively known as the cell theory?all cells must be motile and divideIf a human cell were to increase the amount of cholesterol embedded within its plasma membrane which of the following would most likely happen?Plasma membrane become more stable less fluid and less permeableCancerous cells can divide so rapidly that they will often produce a glycocalyx that is different than the other cells in the body. This may result in ________.cells of the immune system recognizing the tumorous cells as foreign and destroying themThe myocardium undergoes a significant amount of physical stress due to its contractions. You would expect to see relatively large numbers of which of the following embedded within their plasma membrane?desmosomesWhich of the following will not speed up the net rate of diffusion for glucose into a cell?decreasing the number of phospholipids in the plasma membraneThe lungs deliver a regular supply of oxygen to the blood, which is in turn circulated to most all the cells of the body. At the same time oxygen is consumed during aerobic cellular respiration within these cells. This implies that ________.oxygen will passively diffuse into the cellsThe movement of water across the plasma membrane can be described by all of the following EXCEPTcarrier mediated facilitated diffusionIf active transport establishes a concentration gradient with the use of ATP, then the concentration gradient can be looked at as ________.potential energy can be harness when molecules passively diffuse down the concentration gradientWhich of the following would NOT be restricted (limited) by low levels of ATP?osmosisA cell engulfing a relatively large particle will likely utilize ________.phagocytosisIf a cell is non-selectively engulfing of extracellular fluid, for example to absorb nutrients, it will likely utilze________.pinocytosisIf a cell is selectively reducing the concentration of a particular enzyme in the extracellular fluid it will likely utilize ________.receptor mediated endocytosisA type of transport protein found in the plasma membrane of cells lining the inside of the intestine allows sodium ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient. The ions move through thetransport protein, and into the cell. These transport proteins will use the kinetic energy of thediffusing sodium ions to bring glucose into the cells as well. This transport protein would best be described as ________.symporterA type of transport protein found in the plasma membrane of cells lining the inside of the intestine allows sodium ions to diffuse down their concentration gradient. The ions move through thetransport protein, and into the cell. These transport proteins will use the kinetic energy of thediffusing sodium ions to bring glucose into the cells as well. Which of the following would stop transport of glucose through this transport protein?stopping activity of th sodium potassium pumpWhich of the following would NOT assist in establishing a resting membrane potential?Selective diffusion allowing more uncharged particles into the cell.When tissues are injured or infected, chemical signals can be releases that affect the plasma membrane of cells that line the nearby blood vessels. These blood vessels' cells (endothelial cells)respond to the chemical signals by displaying a type of glycoproteins on their surface. Theseproteins will attach to circulating white blood cells bringing them to the site of injury or infection. These glycoproteins would best be described as ________.cell adhesion moleculesMyocardium (cardiac muscle tissue) must rhythmically contract for a lifetime. This requires a considerable amount of energy production by the cells. You would expect to see a relatively highamount of which organelle in these cells?mitochondriaBeta cells in the pancreas produce and secrete the protein hormone insulin. You would expect to see a relatively large amount of which organelles in these cells?Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulumColchicine is a drug that can prevent the formation of microtubules. Which is the most likely effect colchicine would have on cell division?It will arrest mitosis by preventing the formation of spindle microtubules.The RNA that has an anticodon and attaches to a specific amino acid is ________ RNA.transferWater may move through membrane pores constructed by transmembrane proteins called ________.aquaporins_______ is the division of the cytoplasmic mass into two parts.cytokinesis