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an explanation based on observed facts or an idea of how things work

scientific method

defined in the following steps: state the problem or question, propose and explanation, collect evidence (by an experiment), analyze data, and draw conclusions


(in science) examines and discusses whether an investigation should or shouldn't be done


data gathered through research and experiments


the process of reaching a conclusion based on evidence and reasoning


the action of noticing significant detail in order to gain information


giving up one things in favor of another

clinical trial

often use a placebo group and is a controlled testing usually on a new medication


an experiment that isolates the effect of one variable on a system by holding constant all variables but the one under observation


a harmless substance with no effect, used as a control in testing new medicines

sample size

the number of objects in the sample


the action of imitating the character of appearance of something


an actual experience that is meant to mimic, or be like, another experience

informed consent

agreement by a patient to participate in an experiment after they understand the risks involved

placebo effect

any effect that seems to be a consequence of giving a placebo. The change is usually beneficial

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