Middle class idealists, reformers from both political parties who lived in urban settings & sought reform & regulation in order to ensure social justice. Men, women blacks & whites; religious folks; educated middle class white women from the Settlement Houses. Included: populists, republicans, democrats, socialists, neighborhood churches, organized labor, local political life, social service organizations, higher education, & the professions. They were reformers not radicals. They were diverse in their backgrounds & causes.