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The digestive system functions to _____ food into particles small enough to be _____.


The process by which food is broken down into smaller particles is known as _____.

Mechanical or Chemical

Digestion can be a ____ or _____ process.


The process by which end products of digestion move across the wall of the GI tract and into the blood is known as _____.

Digestive tract and accessory organs

The digestive tract consists of __________.


The innermost layer of the digestive tract is the _____.

Mucus membranes and glands

The mucosa layer of the digestive tract consists of _____ and _____.


This layer of the digestive tract consists of loose connective tissue.

Blood vessels, nerves, glands and lymphatics

What 4 structures are contained within the submucosal layer of the digestive tract?


This layer of the digestive tract consists of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers with autonomic nerve fibers in between.


The outermost layer of the digestive tract.


The _____ extends as peritoneal membranes.

Mucosa, submucosa, muscle layer and serosa

List in order, from innermost to outermost, the layers of the digestive tract.

Parasympathetic Nervous System

The digestive tract is innervated by the _____.

anchor digestive organs, transmits vessels and nerves to organs, restricts spread of abdominal infections

List 3 functions of the Periotoneal membrane


_____ is the hardest substance in the human body.

Cementum and periodontal ligament

What two things hold a tooth in place.

Teeth, tongue and salivary glands

The mouth, or oral cavity, contains what 3 structures?


The teeth are involved in _____ digestion.


Children have (#) deciduous teeth.


What type of teeth do adults possess that children do not?


Children have (#) teeth in each quadrant, adults have (#).


Adults have (#) permanent teeth.

Crown, neck and root

What are the three main sections of a tooth?


The _____ of a tooth projects above the gingava (gum-line)


The _____ of a tooth is found at the level of the gingava.


The _____ of a tooth extends into the gum-line and is anchored in the bone.


The bulk of a tooth is made up of _____.


A hard substance that covers the exposed portion of a tooth.

Chewing and swallowing

The tongue facilitates _____ and _____.


A ball-like mass of chewed food is called a _____.

Taste Buds

The tongue contains ______.


This structures anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth.


The tongue has a rich _____ blood supply.

Parotid, submandibular and sublingual

There are three salivary glands known as the _____.


The salivary glands produce _____.

Mucus and amylase

The saliva contains _____ and a digestive enzyme called _____.


A digestive enzyme.


Amylase is also known as _____ and is found specifically in saliva.


This enzyme helps to digest carbohydrates into disaccharides.


A pathology involving an infection of the parotid glands indicated by swelling.


Swallowing is controlled by _____ muscles and supplied by motor neurons.


True or False: swallowing is both a reflex and a controlled action.


The _____ is composed of muscles called constrictors.


This subsection of the pharynx is not involved in swallowing.

Uvula and epiglottis

Food does not usually enter the nasal or respiratory tract due to the action of the _____ and the _____.


The esophagus has _____ muscle near the top which evolves into _____ muscle near the bottom.


The esophagus contains (#) sphincters.


A structure made of thickening circular muscles is known as ______.


The pharyngoesophageal sphincter is located near the _____ of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal sphincter is located near the _____.

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)

_____ is a pathology caused by a weakening of the gastroesophageal sphincter muscle tone.


True or False: the esophagus is supplied by nerves called the esophageal plexus and small capillaries that have the potential to rupture and cause severe bleeding.


This pathology is often a symptom of a larger issue such as GERD and may include a burning feeling.


A backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus is known as _____.

Weight gain, weakened esophageal sphincter muscle and/or an overproduction of acid

What 3 things might cause heartburn?

Longitudinal, circular and oblique

List the 3 layers of muscle found in the stomach.


This is the innermost layer of muscle found in the stomach and it runs at an angle.


The layers of muscle in the _____ allow food to mix and create chyme.


The layers of muscle in the stomach generate _____ waves.

Mucus cells, chief cells and parietal cells

Which three cells are found within the glands of the stomach?


_____ cells secrete mucus.

False (thicker)

The mucus produced within the stomach is much thinner and coats the entire inside of the stomach offering protection from acids.

Hydrochloric acid

One main acid found within the stomach creates a very low pH level and is known as _____.


_____ cells secrete digestive enzymes.


_____ cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.

Intrinsic Factor

This substance is secreted by the parietal cells and aids in the absorption of vitamin B12.

Gastric Juices

The secretion of Mucus, Chief and Parietal cells is known collectively as _____.


A pathology which may be due to the bacteria H. pylori

Hiatal Hernia

A pathology in which the stomach protrudes through an opening in the diaphragm.

Pyloric Stenosis

A narrowing of the pylorus impeding the movement of chyme into the small intestine and characterized by projective vomiting.

Gastric hyperactivity

A pathology that is caused by hyper stimulation of the vagas nerve.


The stomach releases a hormone called _____ which notifies the small intestine that chyme is coming and sets of the stomach's preparations for receiving acidic substances.

Bile/Sodium Bicarbonate

When attempting to neutralize chyme, the gallbladder releases _____ and the pancreas releases _____.


True or False: The small intestine is highly folded.


The small intestine is held in place by the _____.


The small intestine is involved in _____ digestion and absorption.


Most of the digestion that occurs in the small intestine takes place in the _____.

Duodenum, jejunum and ileum

List in order the three parts of the small intestine.


The small intestine ends at the _____ valve which prevents backflow from the cecum into the small intestine.

Peyer's patches

The small intestine contains regions of lymphoid tissue called _____.

Increase the surface area to aid in absorption

The small intestines many folds contain villi and microvilli in order to _____.


Each villus contains a lymphatic capillary termed a ______


The end products of fat digestion enter the lacteal forming _____

Secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)

The walls of the small intestine secrete which two hormones.

Gallbladder and Pancreas

The Secretin and cholecystokinin secreted by the walls of the small intestine act on which two organs?

Large intestine

The _____ extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus.


The large intestine is approximately (#) feet in length

Cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal

List the 4 main parts of the large intestine.


The first part of the large intestine is called the _____.

Vermiform appendix

The _____ is attached to the cecum and associated with lower right quadrant pain.

Cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anal canal, anus

List all sections of the large intestine as it travels through the body.


The longer fecal matter sits in the large intestine the more _____ is absorbed.

Water and electrolytes

The large intestine functions to absorb _____ and _____.


_____ within the large intestine are responsible for the synthesis of vitamins K and B

K and B

Bacteria within the large intestine are responsible for the synthesis of vitamins _____.


True or False: besides the absorption of water and electrolytes and the synthesis of vitamins the large intestine also acts as a temporary storage site for waste and to eliminate waste from the body through defecation.

False (normal)

True or False: E coli is not a normal flora found in our large intestine.


True or False: vitamins produced within the large intestine are produced by bacteria and not the intestine itself.

Normal Flora

This is the term used for the millions of bacteria that live on or inside of us.


A twisting of the intestine is called a _______.


A surgical rerouting of the colon to the surface of the abdominal wall.


Varicosities of anal veins are called _____.


A cleansing of the colon via the infusion of water.

Liver Lobules

The functional units of the liver are called the _____.

Hepatic portal vein

This carries blood rich in digestive end products from the organs of digestion to the liver.

Hepatic Artery

This delivers oxygen rich blood to the liver.

Hepatic veins

These drain blood from the liver.


Pathology of the liver that involves the build-up of scar tissue due to the liver being in a constant state of emulsification.

Synthesize plasma proteins, store glycogen and fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K, detoxification, excretion of bilirubin, cholesterol and drugs and metabolism of carbs, proteins and fats, phagocytosis, synthesis of bile salts and bile secretion for fat digestion

List the 7 functions of the liver.


The liver is responsible for excreting bilirubin which builds up due to the breakdown of _____.


Phagocytosis that occurs in the liver is done by _____ cells.


This is a function of the liver which causes the breaking down of large fat globs into smaller fat globs so that our enzymes can break them down further.


The _____ produces bile, the _____ stores it.

Biliary Tree

A system of ducts connecting the liver, gallbladder and duodenum is called the _____.

Right and left hepatic

The _____ ducts receive bile from the liver


The _____ duct conducts bile from the gallbladder.

Common Bile

The _____ duct is the merging of the hepatic and cystic ducts and carries bile from the gallbladder and liver to the duodenum.

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