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-legislature apportioned by population
-senate: 2 per state

congressional session

convended Jan 4th


the process occurring after every decennial census that allocates congressional seats among the fifty states

customs and norms

civility, specialization, reciprocity


the appointments and opportunities a representative can dole out to supporters in addition they can confer grants and licenses

pork barrel (pork)

appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re-election in their home districts


practice of inserting "pork legislation" into a relatively "pork-free" bill-the earmark passes if the legislation passes

congressional meetings

every two years - they elect leaders, assign committees, and begin the session

which of the following leadership positions is the least influential in the senate

president pro tempore

which of the following are members of the house leadership

minority leader, majority whip, majority leader

every bill must be approved by booth the house and senate in.....form

identical form


redrawing congressional district boundaries with a state

to balance the desire for representation at different levels, the framers made congress a .... institution

bicameral institution

in both the house and senate debate is limited on the congressional floor by

unanimous consent agreements and the rules committees

which of the following occurs every ten years after the US census and determines how many seats a state receives in the house of representatives


what happens when a state loses a seat in the house of representatives after reapportionment

an incumbent in the state can lose their seat

congress has a number of functions other then lawmaking. they include

setting the national agenda, representing its constituents, and acting on presidential actions


traditionally involves a house or senate members articulating and voting for the position that best represents the views of his or her constituents

two of the most important influences on congressional elections are.....and.....

incumbency and redistricting

the framers divided congress into two chambers

to balance different levels of representation

a strong aspect of congressional leadership politics


who had the most powerful position of leadership in the senate

majority leader


when an incumbent personally helps constituents solve problems with the federal bureaucracy

interest groups engage in which of the following activities in order to influence legislators decisions

grassroots activism, lobbying, and financial contributions

unanimous consent agreements require that .... agree to the terms of debate on a given piece of legislation

i can see the foreskin on your weenie

all of the following contribute to incumbents having an advantage during congressional elections

ease in attracting contributions, stronger name recognition, easier access to media coverage


in the house of representatives a member of a legislators staff drafts the proposed legislation and house member puts the bill into the

for mundane matters about which their constituents are less likely to be aware or hold a strong position, legislators typically rely on the .... model of representation



the redrawing of congressional boundaries to benefit a political party is

speaker of the house

the elected leader of the majority party in congress for that session

majority leader of the house

speakers right hand man/woman

minority leader of the hosue

leads the majority party in the house


a position in both parties to which one is elected for the purpose of "whipping" up support along party members to ensue the passage of crucial issues-also take "pre-vote" surveys to see how many votes they need to get to ensure passage of specific legislation

president of the senate

official leader of the senate

president of the senate pro tempore

temporarily acts when the president of the senate is out

majority leader of the senate

sets and control the senates calender for legislation

minority leader senate

the elected leader of the minority party in the senate

senate basics

elections-1/3 every two years
unique powers-advise and consent to ratify treaties by 2/3 vote, confirm appointments, try impeachment charges

house basics

term-2 years
elections-all every 2 years
constituencies-congressional districts
unique powers-originate tax bills, bring impeachment charges

standing committees

relatively permanent congressional committees that address specific areas of legislation

select committee

a temporary legislative committee set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address and issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees

joint committee

a legislative committee formed of members of both the house and senate

conference committee

a joint committee created to work out a compromise on house and senate versions of a particular piece of legislation

congressional powers

oversight, appropriations, advise and consent, impeachments

impeachment (how it works)

*the house-votes on whether the accused ought to be impeached
*if a simple majority votes for the impeachment the matter proceeds to the senate
*the senate-hears evidence and votes to convict and forcible remove the person from office (2/3 votes)

expansion of the presidential office

under franklin roosevelt-the structural factors and the changing economic reality combined and fdr presided over one of the greatest expansions of presidential power-he expanded the roles of commander in chief, chief diplomat, economic regulation, foreign policy,and domestic policy

constitutional powers of the president

chief legislator, chief administrator, chief of state, chief of diplomat, commander in chief

chief legislator

initiate policy (article 2 sec 3), sign/veto legislation passed by congress, convene special sessions of congress (article 2 sec 3)

chief administrator

supervise executive branch of government, appoint and remove executive officials, prepare executive budget

executive orders

formal pronouncement that govern executive branch operations

chief of state

represent the nation of chief of state, grant reprieves and pardons, appoint federal court and supreme court judges

chief diplomatic

make treaties, exercise the power of diplomatic recognition, make executive agreements (custom and international law)

twelfth amendment

election of president and vice president (1804)

the twenty second amendment

two term limit on president (1951)

twenty fifth amendment

presidential succession (1967)

personal presidency

ceremonial powers, domestic policy leader (manager of the economy)

Executive office of the president (EOP)

a group of organiztions that advise the president on a wide range of issues; includes the office of management and budget, the national security council, and the council of economic advisers

the cabinet

collective body but does not make collective decisions-- appointments must be senate approved although they are not "at largely" responsible to the congress

what makes a president successful with congress

party and ideology, foreign policy and national security issues, vetoes, popularity

goals of the bureaucracy

the goal of all bureaucracies is to successfully implement the laws passed by congress


departments and agencies translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines

rule making

a quasi-legislative administrative process by which government agencies produce regulation--have the force of law and are published in the federal register

congressional oversight

if congress does not like the rules that have been set they retain control of the final say

administrative adjudication

applying rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes between regulated parties

spoils system

the practice of rewarding political supporters with jobs

merit system

employees are chosen on the basis of examinations, educational credentials and demonstrable skills


Administers civil service laws, advertises positions, writes examinations, and acts a clearinghouse for workers


Settles disputes concerning employee rights and obligations, hears employee grievances, and orders corrective action when needed

bureaucratic organizational entities

departments, independent agencies, independent regulatory commissions, government corporations


one of fifteen executive branch units responsible for a broadly defined policy area and whose top administrator is appointed by the president, is confirmed by the senate, and serves at the discretion of the president

independent agencies

created by congress and the president that is responsible for a narrowly defined function and whose governing board is intended to be protected from partisan politics

government corporations

and executive branch unit that sells a service and is expected to be financially self sufficient


a document detailing the legal argument for the desired outcome in a court case

concurring opinion

a judicial opinion agreeing with how the majority decides the case but disagreeing with at least some of the legal interpretations or conclusions reached by the majority

dissenting opinion

a judicial opinion disagreeing both with the majority's disposition of a case and with their legal interpretations and conclusions


legal authority established by earlier cases


the situation of already holding the office that is up for reelection


a legislative body composed of two chambers

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