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78 terms

PoliSci Test 2

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Bicameral
-legislature apportioned by population
-senate: 2 per state
congressional session
convended Jan 4th
apportionment
the process occurring after every decennial census that allocates congressional seats among the fifty states
customs and norms
civility, specialization, reciprocity
patronage
the appointments and opportunities a representative can dole out to supporters in addition they can confer grants and licenses
pork barrel (pork)
appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that are often not needed but that are created so that local representatives can win re-election in their home districts
earmarks
practice of inserting "pork legislation" into a relatively "pork-free" bill-the earmark passes if the legislation passes
congressional meetings
every two years - they elect leaders, assign committees, and begin the session
which of the following leadership positions is the least influential in the senate
president pro tempore
which of the following are members of the house leadership
minority leader, majority whip, majority leader
every bill must be approved by booth the house and senate in.....form
identical form
redistricting
redrawing congressional district boundaries with a state
to balance the desire for representation at different levels, the framers made congress a .... institution
bicameral institution
in both the house and senate debate is limited on the congressional floor by
unanimous consent agreements and the rules committees
which of the following occurs every ten years after the US census and determines how many seats a state receives in the house of representatives
reapportionment
what happens when a state loses a seat in the house of representatives after reapportionment
an incumbent in the state can lose their seat
congress has a number of functions other then lawmaking. they include
setting the national agenda, representing its constituents, and acting on presidential actions
representation
traditionally involves a house or senate members articulating and voting for the position that best represents the views of his or her constituents
two of the most important influences on congressional elections are.....and.....
incumbency and redistricting
the framers divided congress into two chambers
to balance different levels of representation
a strong aspect of congressional leadership politics
partsisanship
who had the most powerful position of leadership in the senate
majority leader
casework
when an incumbent personally helps constituents solve problems with the federal bureaucracy
interest groups engage in which of the following activities in order to influence legislators decisions
grassroots activism, lobbying, and financial contributions
unanimous consent agreements require that .... agree to the terms of debate on a given piece of legislation
i can see the foreskin on your weenie
all of the following contribute to incumbents having an advantage during congressional elections
ease in attracting contributions, stronger name recognition, easier access to media coverage
hopper
in the house of representatives a member of a legislators staff drafts the proposed legislation and house member puts the bill into the
for mundane matters about which their constituents are less likely to be aware or hold a strong position, legislators typically rely on the .... model of representation
trustee
gerrymandering
the redrawing of congressional boundaries to benefit a political party is
speaker of the house
the elected leader of the majority party in congress for that session
majority leader of the house
speakers right hand man/woman
minority leader of the hosue
leads the majority party in the house
whip
a position in both parties to which one is elected for the purpose of "whipping" up support along party members to ensue the passage of crucial issues-also take "pre-vote" surveys to see how many votes they need to get to ensure passage of specific legislation
president of the senate
official leader of the senate
president of the senate pro tempore
temporarily acts when the president of the senate is out
majority leader of the senate
sets and control the senates calender for legislation
minority leader senate
the elected leader of the minority party in the senate
senate basics
term-6years
members-100
elections-1/3 every two years
constituencies-states
unique powers-advise and consent to ratify treaties by 2/3 vote, confirm appointments, try impeachment charges
house basics
term-2 years
members-435
elections-all every 2 years
constituencies-congressional districts
unique powers-originate tax bills, bring impeachment charges
standing committees
relatively permanent congressional committees that address specific areas of legislation
select committee
a temporary legislative committee set up to highlight or investigate a particular issue or address and issue not within the jurisdiction of existing committees
joint committee
a legislative committee formed of members of both the house and senate
conference committee
a joint committee created to work out a compromise on house and senate versions of a particular piece of legislation
congressional powers
oversight, appropriations, advise and consent, impeachments
impeachment (how it works)
*the house-votes on whether the accused ought to be impeached
*if a simple majority votes for the impeachment the matter proceeds to the senate
*the senate-hears evidence and votes to convict and forcible remove the person from office (2/3 votes)
expansion of the presidential office
under franklin roosevelt-the structural factors and the changing economic reality combined and fdr presided over one of the greatest expansions of presidential power-he expanded the roles of commander in chief, chief diplomat, economic regulation, foreign policy,and domestic policy
constitutional powers of the president
chief legislator, chief administrator, chief of state, chief of diplomat, commander in chief
chief legislator
initiate policy (article 2 sec 3), sign/veto legislation passed by congress, convene special sessions of congress (article 2 sec 3)
chief administrator
supervise executive branch of government, appoint and remove executive officials, prepare executive budget
executive orders
formal pronouncement that govern executive branch operations
chief of state
represent the nation of chief of state, grant reprieves and pardons, appoint federal court and supreme court judges
chief diplomatic
make treaties, exercise the power of diplomatic recognition, make executive agreements (custom and international law)
twelfth amendment
election of president and vice president (1804)
the twenty second amendment
two term limit on president (1951)
twenty fifth amendment
presidential succession (1967)
personal presidency
ceremonial powers, domestic policy leader (manager of the economy)
Executive office of the president (EOP)
a group of organiztions that advise the president on a wide range of issues; includes the office of management and budget, the national security council, and the council of economic advisers
the cabinet
collective body but does not make collective decisions-- appointments must be senate approved although they are not "at largely" responsible to the congress
what makes a president successful with congress
party and ideology, foreign policy and national security issues, vetoes, popularity
goals of the bureaucracy
the goal of all bureaucracies is to successfully implement the laws passed by congress
implementation
departments and agencies translate laws into specific bureaucratic routines
rule making
a quasi-legislative administrative process by which government agencies produce regulation--have the force of law and are published in the federal register
congressional oversight
if congress does not like the rules that have been set they retain control of the final say
administrative adjudication
applying rules and precedents to specific cases to settle disputes between regulated parties
spoils system
the practice of rewarding political supporters with jobs
merit system
employees are chosen on the basis of examinations, educational credentials and demonstrable skills
OPM
Administers civil service laws, advertises positions, writes examinations, and acts a clearinghouse for workers
MSPB
Settles disputes concerning employee rights and obligations, hears employee grievances, and orders corrective action when needed
bureaucratic organizational entities
departments, independent agencies, independent regulatory commissions, government corporations
departments
one of fifteen executive branch units responsible for a broadly defined policy area and whose top administrator is appointed by the president, is confirmed by the senate, and serves at the discretion of the president
independent agencies
created by congress and the president that is responsible for a narrowly defined function and whose governing board is intended to be protected from partisan politics
government corporations
and executive branch unit that sells a service and is expected to be financially self sufficient
brief
a document detailing the legal argument for the desired outcome in a court case
concurring opinion
a judicial opinion agreeing with how the majority decides the case but disagreeing with at least some of the legal interpretations or conclusions reached by the majority
dissenting opinion
a judicial opinion disagreeing both with the majority's disposition of a case and with their legal interpretations and conclusions
precedent
legal authority established by earlier cases
incumbency
the situation of already holding the office that is up for reelection
bicameral
a legislative body composed of two chambers