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study of bones


hold bones together at joints


attach muscles to bones

Functions of skeleton

support, protection, movement, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, blood formation

Mineralization or calcification

hardening process of bone

Flat bones

protect soft organs, curved but wide and thin

Long bones

longer than wide, rigid levers acted upon muscles

Short bones

Equal in length and width, glide across each other in multiple directions

Irregular bones

elaborates shapes that do no fit into other categories


external sheath that covers bone except where there is articular cartilage


thin layer of reticular connective tissue lining marrow cavity

Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells

stem cells found in endosteum, periosteum, and in central canals


bone forming cells


former osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited


tiny cavities where osteocytes reside


little channels that connect lacunae


bone-dissolving cells found on the bone surface

Ossification or osteogenesis

the formation of bone

In the human fetus and infant, bone develops by two methods

Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification

Epiphyseal plate

region of transition from cartilage to bone


the zone of transition facing the marrow cavity

Interstitial growth

bones increase in length

Appositional growth

bones increase in width throughout life

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