83 terms

psych test 2

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
rooting reflex
reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek
piage's theory of development
sensorimotor, preoporational, concrete operational, formal operational
piaget sensorimotor
birth-age 2
no object perminence
piaget preoperational
age 2-7
theory of mind
no conservation
object perminance
piaget concrete operational
age 7-11
basic math ability
lack abstract reasoning ability (no algebra skills)
piaget formal operational
age 12-adulthood
abstract and hypothetical thought
strict rules
harsh discipline- no explanation
few rules
little discipline
rules are reinforced w/ explanation
make exceptions
chemicals/viruses that can cause birth defects
ex: fetal alcohol syndrome
kohlberg's theory of moral development
kholberg preconventional
before age 9
self interest, seek reward, avoid punishment
kholberg conventional
by early adolescence
care about others; maintaining oder
obey rules simply bc they are laws; no in depth reasoning
kholberg postconventional
not everyone reaches this stage
basic ethical principles
think about right and wrong
focus on moral concern
emerging adulthood
age 18-mid 20s
extended time to acheive complete independence
establish career
identity crisis
vonglivyd between different aspects of one's identity
absolute threshold
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect 50% of the time
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. (Also called just noticeable difference or jnd.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 201)
subliminal message
a stimulus that is presented below the threshold for awareness
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
figure-ground perception
ability to discriminate between figure and its background
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
semicircle canals
structure used for sense of balance
vestibular sense
used for sense of balance
sweet salty sour bitter umami
basic taste sensations
blind spot
where the optic nerve leaves the eye and there are no receptor cells
visual receptor cell sensitive to dim light
visual receptor cell sensitive to color
chemical sense
Can distinguish thousands of different odors and flavors. Identification begins at membrane receptors on sensory cells
knowledge of an event before it occurs
apparent power to perceive things that are not present to the senses
perception of remote events
apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
eyes turn toward each other more to see closer objects
retinal disparity
each eye receives a slightly different image
relative size
objects that are farther away appear smaller
texture gradient
distant objects appear more densely packed
linear perspective
lines appear to converge at a distance
cocktail party effect
ability to attend to only one voice among many
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
simple association between 2 stimuli
"If A, then B"
operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
gender roles
In the United States 30 years ago, men were expected to initiate dates and women to select wedding gifts. This best illustrates aspects of
At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing
genetic predispositions
Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to
fraternal twins who were raised apart
Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
Which of the following is a major source of genetic diversity?
Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender
By inventing customs and passing them on to their peers and offspring, chimpanzees exhibit the rudiments of
evolutionary perspective
It has been suggested that older men in all cultures tend to marry women younger than themselves because men are genetically predisposed to seek female features associated with youthful fertility. This suggestion best illustrates
prenatal environments
Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.
Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with
theory of mind
A child's realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of
secure attatchment
Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
memory capacities
Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their
earlier; later
Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.
critical period
The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as
Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the
concept of conservation
Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a
A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.
"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of
Receptor cells for the vestibular sense send messages to the
sensory adaptation
If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates
top down processing
Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others' behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of
linear perspective
Railroad tracks appear to converge in the distance. This provides a cue for depth perception known as
retinal disparity
The distance between our right and left eyes functions to provide us with a cue for depth perception known as
Psychics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of
shape constancy
A door casts an increasingly trapezoidal image on our retinas as it opens, yet we still perceive it as rectangular. This illustrates
perceptual constancy
The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?
observational learning
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates
fixed ratio
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
unconditional response
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a
biological predispositions
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by
conditioned stimulus
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates
spontaneous recovery
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates
negative reinforcement
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of
classical conditioning
People have been observed to form negative attitudes toward Pokemon characters who were repeatedly shown with negative words and images next to them. This best illustrates the impact of