32 terms

MGMT Lecture 2 (1)

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Terms in this set (...)

Responsible for processing data.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Three Components of a CPU
- Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
- Control Unit (CU)
- Register (Cache)
Arithmetic/Logic Unit
- performs mathematical calculations, makes logical comparisons
Control Unit (CU)
- sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, primary and secondary storage, and output devices
Register (Cache)
- temporary storage bin for information that is going to be used again
- keeps info for things it things you will use later
ex.) web browsing, storing username and password
- A small amount of storage available as part of a CPU or other digital processor. Almost all computers load data from a larger memory into registers where it is used for arithmetic, manipulated, or tested by some machine instructions.
Main Memory
- Holds and presents data instructions and data to the CPU for processing
What two things does a system unit consist of?
- CPU
- Main Memory
What are the two types of memory?
- Primary Memory (main memory)
- Secondary Memory (Read-Only Memory, ROM)
Primary Memory
- main memory
- holds program instructions and data for processing
Secondary Memory
- ROM
- more permanent storage
Main Memory Devices are also known as...
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Semiconductor memory chip made of silicon.
Main memory Device/RAM
Main Memory Devices/RAM include what 2 subsets of memory?
- Volatile Memory
- Non-Volatile Memory
Volatile Memory or Volatile Storage
- computer memory that requires power to maintain stored information, as soon as power is lost the stored info is also lost
Non-Volatile Memory
- memory that maintains its content even when unpowered
Secondary Storage is also known as _____ and ________.
- permanent storage and ROM
3 Advantages of Secondary Storage.
- non-volatility
- greater capacity
- greater economy
Disadvantage of Secondary Storage
- considerably slower than main memory
What does ROM stand for?
- read only memory
Explain the main differences in RAM and ROM.
- RAM
- temporary
- lots of space
- helps the comp while it's running
- ROM
- permanent
- tiny space
- start up
Explain the differences in cache and RAM
Cache
- inside CPU
- smaller
- faster
RAM
- outside CPU
- bigger
- slower
Explain the measures of memory as you look at the hierarchy of memory from top to bottom.
- Fastest to slowest
- smallest to largest capacity
- closest to farthest from the CPU
Hierarchy of Memory
- Registers (cache): work at clock speed of CPU
L1 cache: a few nanoseconds
L2 cache: a few more nanoseconds
L3 cache: on some processors
- RAM: 10 to 100s of nanoseconds
- Hard Disk itself: 10s of milliseconds
What are the two access methods? Give examples of them.
Sequential Access: data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored
- Ex.) magnetic tapes
Direct Access: data can be retrieved in any order
- Ex.) magnetic disks (hard disks)
Give 3 examples of secondary storage devices that use direct access.
- optical disks (CD-ROM)
- digital video disk (DVD)
- Flash Memory
What is the Internet of things?
- basic idea that we all want to connect physical devices thought the internet and send data over the internet to update status of devices
What are the 3 attributes of hardware?
- speed
- storage capacity (memory)
- processing power
Clock Speed
- series of electronic pulses produced by the CPU at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time
How is clock speed measured: normally? Person computers?
- megahertz
- gigahertz
Also known as CPU Power and CPU cycles and ect.
- processing power
Processing Power
- the ability of a computer to manipulate data
A CPU with higher ____ ____ have more processing power.
- clock speeds