psych quiz 2

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Seeing a face is to sensation as recognizing a friend's face is to
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Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves ?wavelengthIf you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper , you will see a greenish image of the object . This phenomenon BEST supports the theory of color vision .opponent - processThe trichromatic and opponent - process theories of color vision are not in conflict because each corresponds toa different stage of visual processing .Snapping your fingers causes the surrounding air tovibratePitch is to frequency asloudness is to amplitude .Place theory argues that sounds of different frequencies induce vibration in different areas of thebasilar membraneClosing your eyes and then touching your nose with your forefinger most accurately illustrates which of the following ?kinesthetic senseThe idea that pain signals must pass through a type of " doorway " in the spinal cord is referred to as thegate control theory of painThe capacity of a placebo treatment to reduce pain perception is due tothe release of endorphins in the brain.In bottom - up processing , the resulting percept is determined bystimulus characteristicsTop - down processing emphasizes all of the following EXCEPTstimulus featuresWhat type of processing takes sensory data into the system through receptors and then sends the data to the brain for analysis of information ?bottom - up processingPerceptual constancy reflects the understanding of the perceiver thatobjects remain the same despite changes in their appearance .Your ability to view and interpret an ambiguous figure in two different ways is a result ofalternating perceptual control between the left and right hemispheres .Learning - based inference is to nurture as is to nature .Gestalt theory" The whole is more than the sum of its sensory parts " is a statement reflectingGestalt psychology .Figure is to ground ascharacteristics are to background .The learning perspective suggests that the most important factors in determining our ability to identify a percept arecontext , expectation , and perceptual sets .Shannon reads Jason the words folk , soak , and joke . Then she asks him , " What do you call the white of an egg ? " He replies by saying , " yolk , " when the correct answer is albumen ( or simply , egg white ) . Jason gave an incorrect answer due toa perceptual set .Adults from the mainland United States are tricked by the Ponzo illusion , whereas Guam citizens are often not fooled by it . This is best explained bylearning - based inference .Learning always occurs as a result ofexperience .While walking down a dark alley , you jump at a loud noise . This would not be considered learning becausejumping is merely a reflex .As an infant , Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor . When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat , she started to cry . This is an example ofclassical conditioningPavlov placed food in the mouths of dogs , and they began to salivate . The food acted as a ( n )unconditioned stimulus .Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning , she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad . Over several weeks , she notices that the dog immediately gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys before leaving the house . Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog's behaviorclassical conditioningIn the Pavlov study , the salivation to the tone represents the after conditioning .conditioned stimulusAfter acquisition of classical conditioning , the now has the ability to elicit a response that resembles the UCR .conditioned stimulusAfter Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome , he right away . Soon they stopped experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food salivating to the sound of the metronome . This represents the process calledextinction .Robert's dog , Little Gut , runs to Robert when he says , " Come . " If one day , Little Gut comes running when Robert says , " Dumb , " we might say that Little Gut has demonstratedstimulus generalization .John Watson offered a live , white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer . The white rat served as the stimulus in his study .conditioned .One of the best therapy strategies for eliminating conditioned fears involves combining in a process known asextinction and relaxation ; counterconditioningLast month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs , so he no longer likes chili dogs . Walter has experiencedconditioned food aversion .13. Human beings generally have a aversion to bitter and sour foods . Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour . The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example ofa biological predisposition .A farmer troubled by coyotes eating his sheep . In an attempt to solve the problem , he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea - inducing drug . He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam . He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep . The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of to accomplish this .conditioned food aversionsThe kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is calledoperant conditioningIn operant conditioning , behavioral change is brought about by the manipulation ofconsequences .Reinforcement is to punishment asincrease is to decrease .Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again ?Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer , a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur .Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement asreward is to punish .Mary's parents want her to put her books in her bookcase . At first , they praise her for tting the books together in one pile . Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase . When she gets the books on top of the bookcase , she gets praise . Finally , her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase . This is an example ofshapingWhat kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $ 10 every time she accumulates six A's on her tests ?partial reinforcementThe key difference between the two main forms of schedules of reinforcement is whetherreinforcement is determined by time or by the number of responses .Your friend works in a lab and is paid for each three blood smears analyzed . Your friend is operating on which schedule of reinforcement ?fixed ratioA telemarketer is working according to a schedule of reinforcement .variable ratioCatching fish when fishing in a lake would most likely represent which of the following schedules of reinforcement ?variable intervalReinforcement that is given for a response emitted after each hour and a half ( c.g. , 10 a.m. , 11:30 a.m. , I p.m. ) in time is most likely to be a schedule .fixed intervalThe difference between negative and positive punishment is whethersomething has been taken away or given .Which of the following is true of punishment ?e ) All of these answers are correct .The cognitive view would argue that learningdoes not always change behavior , but it always produces changes in mental activity .Studies of observational learning demonstrate thatlearning can occur in the absence of personal experience .