Exam 1

Be able to state the three elements that are required for good causal theory
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Terms in this set (49)
Agents are the ones working for principals, trying to maximize return. While the principals rely on agents to attain a certain goal. Agendas of both roles don't always align. A definite problem for principals because it is costly to make sure agents are doing what you want them to. Agents can use resources given and information only they have to turn against the principal. There isn't a great tactic to know if the agents are telling the truth.
1. how the proposed US constitution
would limit "factionalism" and protect minority rights.
2. Article VI claiming that the majority rule of nation trumps the majority rule of the individual states, giving more rights to the minority. Because there are three branches of government, it makes it harder for one faction to take over all three.
1. Know that Madison's Federalist No. 51 was intended to show... 2. Be able to give specific examples from the constitution that show how states' rights and citizens' rights are protected from potential federal abuses of power1. how the proposed US constitution would limit the ability of the federal government to usurp power over states and over citizens. 2. 10th amendment (rights not granted to the nat. gov. or the state gov. are automatically granted to the people). bill of rights. federal judges decide whether leaders are abusing power. checks and balances. we are able to vote leaders out.Whether the elastic, commerce, and supremacy clauses in the constitution grant states power?No, these clauses mostly restrict states. National gov. Overrules states laws. More tax taken by national gov. Makes states not able to tax as much. States retain power by the senate, they get to ratify constitution by 3/4 of the states votes. States only have power where nat. gov. AllowsIs federalism an impediment to freedom? use evidence to supportIn some ways yes and in some ways no. There are many ways in which rights are taken away because of federalism. For example, Riker talks about a county in his article where the local majorities' freedoms cause loss of freedoms/rights to the local minorities. This shows that decisions making at a state level can create issues with majority versus minority rights. But our freedoms can also be protected if the federal government feels it is necessary to stop abuse of power in states, especially through the supremacy clause.Pro of FederalismCan prevent states from going to war with each other Protects states from outside aggression Set national standards for environmental and labor laws Protects states from harmful occurrences in other states Grants in aidDescribe how checks and balances in the US constitution limit the ability of any one branch to dominate other branches, and give specific constitutional examples of checks and balancesEach branch is checking on the other to make sure none of them are abusing power. This system is stated in article 1 of the constitution.explain how and why origin and survival of different branches follows separate constitutional procedures, and know the term lengths for the president, supreme court, and both houses of congress. survival: term lengths. house: 2 yr senators: 6 yr pres: 4yr supreme court: 18 yrdescribe how the presidency and federal courts can impact legislationThey interpret the laws and decide the constitutionality of laws, they have to sign for laws to pass.describe how congress might impact functioning of the executive and judicial branchesexecutive branches can only issue regulations that congress allows and if the executive branch vetos a bill congress passes they have a chance to override the veto. congress determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. impeachment of judicial members. president has to confirm appointments.argument regarding how democratic the constitution is. define democratic and give constitutional evidence.democratic: support of democracy which means popular election of the government and basic protection of civil rights and liberties. One reason in favor of it being democratic is that we are able to choose our representatives through democratic vote and these representatives can be replaced. For example amendment XVII allows each state two senators.rights that don't appear on the bill of rights. where is the bill of rights officially documented?the right to privacy, property life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (first 10 amendments)does or does not the us constitution protects states and citizen rights. give constitutional evidenceyes, the bill of rights is a list of rights for states and citizens that cannot be taken away. It also states in the bill of rights that if their are basic rights not mentioned in the constitution, that doesn't mean that they aren't still rights held and protected by the constitution.define federalism. what is the difference between federalism, confederate, and unitary governments.a political system with multiple levels of government, in which each level has independent authority over some important policy areas. Unitary government gives all power to the national government. The confederate government gives shared power to national gov. and state gov. national government can't enforce policy. only states enforce policy.contrast union powers under articles of confederation and under constitution. give examples of collective dilemmas not resolved under articles.consitution: national government has more power and ability to tax and control the power of the states. Articles of confederation: national government has hardly any power, states can tax and make most decisions. no executive branch.2 examples of problems where states need the national gov. to solve them.natural disasters mass shootingsconditions in which states welcome national gov. help, allowing the federal power to possible grow. give examplestimes of crisis such as natural disasters, where states are completely dependent on the national government because the issue is way to big for the state to control. The national government wants to try to prevent problems from spreading from one state to another.Politicsthe process of making collective decisions, usually by governments, to allocate public resources and to create and enforce rules for the operation of societypreferencesthe outcomes or experiences people want or believe they needpublic gooda benefit provided to a group of people such that each member can enjoy it without necessarily having to pay for it, and one person's enjoyment of it does not inhibit the enjoyment of it by othersFederalism (federal system)a political system with multiple levels of government, in which each level has independent authority over some important policy areasfree ridingbenefiting from a public good while avoiding the costs of contributing to itcollective action problem (cooperation problem)a situation in which people would be better off if they all cooperated; however, any individual has an incentive not to cooperate as long as others are cooperatingPrinciple-agent probleman instance in which one actor, a principal, contracts another actor, an agent, to act on the principal's behalf, but the actors may not share the same preferences, and the principal lacks the means to observe all of the agent's behaviorDemocracyrule by the people; in practice today this means popular election of the government and basic protection of civil rights and liberties.Republica political system in which public officials are chosen to represent the people in an assembly that makes important policy decisions.Electoral CollegeA group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice presidentbicameral legislatureA law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.Elastic ClauseArticle I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.Supremacy ClauseArticle VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.Commerce ClauseThe clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.reserved powersPowers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the peopleBill of Rightsthe first 10 amendments to the Constitution, which enumerate a set of liberties not to be violated by the government and a set of rights to be protected by the governmentCooperative Federalismsystem in which both levels of government, state and national, are active in nearly all areas of policy and share sovereign authorityReferenduman election in which citizens vote directly on whether to overturn a bill or constitutional amendment that has been passed by a legislature.unitary systemA government that gives all key powers to the national or central governmentJim Crow LawsLaws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whitesDue Processthe right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or propertyAffirmative Actionefforts to redress previous discrimination against women and minorities through active measures to promote their employment and educational opportunities"sources of national government power and state power" table on p.77---how do supreme court decisions impact the national/state balance of powers?They come up with the restrictions on how much power the states do have (article 1, section 10). Through the supremacy law, the national government holds sovereignty. Bill of rights place restrictions on federal government. The 10th amendment protects rights of the states that aren't included in the constitution.how do special districts help solve collective dilemmas at levels below national or state gov. (p. 90-91 of textbook)They come together as a special district and create one solution for all of the districts experiencing the dilemmas. anytime the government creates a third party to solve those collective dilemmas. ex: unified school districts. unified police force. unified transportation system. below the state level.