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Terms in this set (157)
Globalization is __________.
the central trend in international relations today
International relations revolves around the key problem of how __________.
a group can reconcile its collective and individual interests
The U.S. home mortgage market initiated the __________ of 2008-2009.
global economic recession
International relations is largely a(n) __________ discipline.
International relations __________.
concerns the relationships among the world's governments
The collective goods problem is the problem of how to provide something that benefits __________ members of a group regardless of what each member contributes.
Why are collective goods easier to provide in small groups than in large groups?
In a small group, the free riding of one member is harder to conceal.
A current example of a collective goods problem is that __________.
states find it hard to cooperate to maintain global climate stability
In 2006, the United States warned North Korea against selling its bombs, threatening to retaliate against North Korea if any other actor used such a bomb against the United States. This strategy of the United States to prevent proliferation can be considered an example of which principle?
Which of the following actions would be considered a reciprocity solution to the problem of global warming?
All of the countries of the world sign a binding international agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The two major subfields of the study of international relations are __________.
international security and international political economy
How do dominance and reciprocity differ as solutions to collective goods problems?
Dominance relies on a power hierarchy acting as a central authority, whereas reciprocity operates without any central authority.
The disadvantages of dominance as a solution to collective goods problems include __________.
stability that comes at a cost of constant oppression of the lower-ranking members in the status hierarchy
How is the identity principle distinguished from the dominance and reciprocity principles?
The identity principle does not rely on self-interest, whereas the dominance and reciprocity principles rely on achieving individual self-interest.
__________ is a necessary component of a state.
Among other things, a nation is a __________ share characteristics such as language and culture.
group of people who
__________ is only informally recognized as a state, despite being a political entity often referred to as one.
__________ are two intergovernmental organizations.
The African Union and NATO
Which is an example of a transnational actor?
There are as many as __________ NGOs and 5,000 IGOs globally.
Sovereignty is __________.
a state government answering to no higher authority
According to transformationalists, why is sovereignty sometimes more fluid than one might think?
International organizations such as the EU erode state sovereignty.
The set of relationships among the world's states, structured according to __________, is referred to as the international system.
certain rules and patterns of interaction
Because it is entirely a U.S. entity but also operates an International Trade Division to promote exports and foreign investment, the state of Ohio could be considered a(n) __________ actor.
Nongovernmental organizations are __________ organizations acting as __________ actors.
Groups within states that influence the state's __________ are called substate actors.
The __________ level of analysis concerns the perceptions, choices, and actions of human beings.
The __________ level of analysis concerns the influence of the international system on outcomes, whereas the __________ level of analysis concerns the aggregations of individuals within states that influence state actions in the international arena.
Consideration of the political organizations, government agencies, and economic sectors of states is the focus of the __________ level of analysis.
Which is a domestic-level explanation for the 2003 U.S.-led war against Iraq?
the rise of neoconservative policymakers in the U.S. administration
Levels of analysis offer __________ explanations for international events.
According to scholars who see globalization as the fruition of liberal economic principles, what role do states play in the process of globalization?
They have become obsolete as economic units.
Which theorists are most likely to believe that the European Union is ultimately going to replace its individual member states?
A major source of conflict and war at present is the frequent mismatch between perceived __________ and actual state borders.
With respect to globalization, __________.
policies to expand free trade are a central focus of antiglobalization protesters
Which of the following is a major point of view on globalization?
Globalization diffuses authority, transforming state power to operate in new contexts.
Large states possessing massive military and economic strength and influence are called __________.
The __________ relatively rich industrialized countries and relatively poor countries is called the North-South gap
In the global North, income levels per capita are roughly __________ times as high as in the global South.
Given the definition of the North-South gap, __________ is considered to be in the global North.
The Marshall Plan was a policy designed to __________.
rebuild European economies
What was the result of the Korean War at the time of the 1953 truce?
The United States hardened its attitude toward communism.
The Sino-Soviet split resulted in China becoming extremely __________ in the 1960s.
In the Cold War era, just as was the case for the United States in Vietnam, the Soviet Union could not defeat rebel armies in __________.
When Yugoslavia fell apart, __________.
ethnic Serbs seized parts of Croatia and Bosnia, where they killed or forced non-Serbs from their homes
North Korea and Iran were players in recent crises involving __________.
nuclear weapons programs
During the Cold War, the alliance of states coordinated under the leadership of the __________ was called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The Berlin Wall was built by __________.
An example of Cold War alliances between states is the __________.
In 1955, superpower leaders gathered in Geneva, deciding to reconstitute Austria. This type of gathering can be considered an example of a __________.
In Axelrod's "Live and Let Live System" troops from German and ______________ troops developed the system of live and let live.
The live and let live system ended because______________.
army commanders required raids
In singe-play prisoner's dilemma, mutual defection (DD) is the Nash equilibrium outcome. The Nash equilibrium is defined as:
an outcome where neither party would go back and change his or her choice
The "live and let live system of trench warfare" described by Axelrod is important to the study of conflict resolution, because this research demonstrates:
that even under very harsh conditions (like trench warfare), actors can achieve mutual cooperation and manage their conflicts
The "live and let live system of trench warfare" got its start in WWI because of:
tacit behavior by British and German forces, such as not firing at each other during meal times or inclement weather, and by not bombing each other's supply lines.
Although soldier in the trenches appreciated the "live and let live system" of trench warfare, the high command did not. It was the policy/requirement of __________ that is thought to be most responsible for the end of the live and let live system.
In the Live and Let Live System of Trench Warfare, Axelrod found________.
Even in the trenches of WWI between enemy forces, cooperation could emerge and be sustained, as evidenced by the "live and let live system of trench warfare.
The most destructive war in 2018 was located in __________; also in 2018, Nigerian troops moved against Islamist militants in the northern part of __________.
With respect to warfare, __________.
today's most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing rather than all-out battles
That trade increases wealth, cooperation, global well-being, and, ultimately, peace is __________.
an explanation by Immanuel Kant of how peace and cooperation are possible
Realists argue that one state's reliance on another spurs __________ tensions in short-term contexts.
International regimes __________.
are stronger when embedded in permanent institutions
The first attempt at creating a collective security system was the __________.
League of Nations
Which statement about international regimes is true?
They coordinate the behavior of states to assist them in overcoming collective goods problems.
Which statement correctly describes an international regime?
An international regime is a set of rules on which actors agree in regard to a particular issue area.
Collective security refers to __________.
the formation of a broad alliance to oppose aggression
Which proposition has not been contradicted by any major historical cases?
Democracies almost never fight each other
UN cooperative defense is an example of __________.
The first Gulf War against Iraq is considered an example of __________.
Some scholars have labeled __________ genocide.
the violent crackdown of the government of Burma on an ethnic minority in that country in 2017
How can liberal theories of international relations be distinguished from realism?
Realists see the rules of international relations as timeless and unchanging, whereas liberal theorists see the rules of international relations as evolving incrementally.
The success of collective security depends on __________.
the level of commitment and agreement among member states
That there is a multiplicity of experiences and perspectives that defy easy categorization rather than a solitary, objective reality is a key idea of __________.
What does postmodernism fundamentally call into question altogether?
the concept of states as actors
Which of the following do postmodernists mainly focus on when attempting to deconstruct dominant beliefs?
Which of the following is a critique of realism from the postmodern perspective?
States are not the central actors in international relations.
Scholars examining the role of the European Union in socializing elites in new member states is an example of the __________ tradition in the study of international relations.
For postmodernists, the breakup of the Soviet Union into 15 sovereign states is evidence of a problem with realists' belief that states __________.
Constructivists argue that state identities are constructed through socialization. Based on the definition of the term, which of the following is/are likely agents of socialization?
Who was the revolutionary who believed that Russia should make its greatest ambition the spreading of revolution to other nations in order to build a worldwide alliance?
According to Lenin's theory, which of the following is an example of a buy off?
industrialized countries using their profits to exploit the working classes
Marxist approaches to international relations hold that both international relations and domestic politics arise from unequal relationships between __________.
The theory of imperialism that argued that European capitalists were investing in colonies where they could earn big profits, and then using part of those profits to buy off the working class back home, was developed by __________.
Nonviolent approaches to social change were successfully spread in the United States during the 1960s by civil rights leader __________.
Martin Luther King Jr.
What approach to conflict resolution was used to decide whether Serbs or Bosnians would get the city of Brcko?
The glorification of war and military force, and the structuring of society around war, is known as __________.
Scholars of peace studies emphasize the __________ level of analysis when recommending strategies for achieving peace.
The leader of India's struggle for independence from Britain who emphasized nonviolence was __________.
Positive peace __________.
resolves the underlying reasons for war
Which of the following describes the levels of analysis on which peace studies focus?
individual, domestic, and global
In the early 1970s, Pakistan secretly passed messages between China and the United States, leading to a breakthrough in relations between those two nations. This illustrates the concept of __________.
Which is likely the most significant obstacle to using a strategy such as unilateral pacifism or nonviolence, given the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma?
lack of trust
The 2017 demonstrations in London responding to U.S. President Donald Trump's threats against North Korea provide an example of __________.
In terms of their beliefs about objectivity, peace studies scholars are most comparable to __________.
Proponents of positive peace call for which of the following?
the strengthening of norms against the use of violence
__________ rallied the French in defeating the English in the fifteenth century.
Joan of Arc
__________ feminists do not believe there is any fixed inherent meaning or essence in the male or female gender.
__________ feminists find important differences between men and women that are arbitrary and flexible, whereas __________ feminists consider those differences trivial.
An international system based on feminine principles would include which of the following characteristics?
responsibility of the people to care for each other regardless of national borders
A __________ feminist values the unique contributions of women as women, a __________ feminist tends to reject the assumptions about gender made by other feminists, and a __________ feminist seeks to include women more often as subjects of study.
difference; postmodern; liberal
With respect to the impact of gender on war and peace, difference feminists believe that __________.
women are inherently more peaceful than men
With respect to women in politics, __________.
the number of women serving in legislatures is increasing
In order for women to have a profound influence on international relations, they need to __________.
participate in key foreign policy positions in large numbers around the world
Which of the following statements describes a feminist argument with respect to international relations?
Femininity is associated with private and domestic areas, whereas masculinity is associated with public and political spaces.
__________ feminism criticizes __________ feminism for trying merely to integrate women into traditional structures of war and foreign policy.
Difference feminists argue that realism involves assumptions of masculinity because of the principle of __________.
anarchic international politics and ordered domestic politics
The historical facts that Margaret Thatcher went to war to recover the Falkland Islands from Argentina, Indira Gandhi led a war against Pakistan, and Golda Meir led a war against Syria and Egypt contrast with the assumptions of which branch of feminism?
Which statement characterizes decision making during crises?
Groupthink occurs more easily.
Which strategy can prevent groupthink?
bringing in external advisers
Which factor might be a key aspect of a decision-making process that involves informal consultations?
friends outside of the govt
Cognitive bias refers to the limitations of __________ in making choices.
the human brain
Affective bias refers to the emotions felt by decision makers when they consider the consequences of __________.
their own actions
Which model of decision making consists of negotiations between bureaucratic agencies with divergent interests?
government bargaining model
The __________ model of decision making relies on standard operating procedures.
One example of the government bargaining model of decision making is the __________.
struggle between the Japanese Agriculture Ministry and the Japanese Foreign Ministry over whether or not to allow the importation of sushi from California
Which concept is consistent with the activities pursued in the process of rational decision making?
identification of alternatives
The sequence of steps in the rational model of decision making is __________.
clarify goals, order goals by importance, list alternatives to achieve goals, investigate consequences of alternatives, and choose the course of action
Decisions of individuals can most frequently diverge from the __________ model because of information screens.
Decision makers utilized the historical analogy of __________ when debating the intervention in Vietnam.
Munich in 1938
According to the concept of bounded rationality, decision makers __________.
will choose an option that is good enough to meet some minimal criteria
A "kitchen cabinet" is __________.
a trusted group of friends with no formal positions in government who discuss policy issues with the leader
The Iran-Contra scandal resulted from the activities of which government agency?
National Security Council
Cognitive balance, or the maintenance of a logically consistent mental model of the world, can be achieved through __________.
Which of the following is an example of a "mirror image" as an implication of cognitive balance?
India blaming Pakistan for aggressively building nuclear weapons to justify its own nuclear activities
Which of the following may diverge despite individuals acting rationally?
Which factor must be associated with each possible outcome of an action when there is uncertainty about costs and benefits of actions?
Which of the following is a component of standard operating procedures?
applying what you know of general principles
When British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the nonaggression pact with Hitler in Munich in 1938, he did not want to see the clear signs of Hitler's aggression and chose to appease him instead. Some scholars argue this was due to Chamberlain's not wanting to lead Britain into a major war. If true, this would best illustrate __________.
Former U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen's statement "The unrelenting flow of information, the need to digest it on a minute-by-minute basis, is quite different from anything I've experienced before. . . . There's little time for contemplation; most of it is action" reflects the concept of __________.
Groupthink is the tendency for groups to reach decisions without accurately __________ since individual members tend to go along with ideas they think the others support.
When students exhibit a tendency not to challenge a professor's arguments because they assume he or she is an expert and knows better, it could be an example of __________.
Which statement is an element of prospect theory?
Decision makers use a reference point for comparison.
Some scholars believe that former secretary of state John Foster Dulles had such great personal prejudice against communism that he always assumed the worst of Soviet decision makers. This is an example of __________.
What did Harry Truman's sign "The buck stops here" illustrate about his role in foreign policy decision making?
Foreign policy decisions were ultimately his responsibility.
What aspect of a democracy makes the justification of effort especially prevalent?
Politicians are judged by the electorate.
The concept of groupthink suggests that the __________ decision making affect(s) the outcome.
structural context of
Citizens of a given ethnic background are among a number of __________ that might form to lobby governments on foreign policy.
Bureaucrats in the foreign policy decision-making process pursue __________.
Governments survive by relying on __________.
The part of the population that stays informed about international issues is called the __________ public.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, members of the Defense Department were unwilling to implement a military solution, while some diplomatic officials favored a preemptive military strike. This situation illustrates the argument that __________.
the goal of a bureaucratic agency does not always help predict the preferences of its members
Which statement regarding interest groups is accurate?
They are organized in order to influence the outcome in political issues.
Politicians have a difficult time running formal bureaucratic agencies because __________.
the agencies can be too large and too routinized to control easily
Which president warned of the growing influence of the military-industrial complex in his farewell speech?
Which of the following is a way in which the components of the military-industrial complex influence foreign policy decision making?
spreading out of weapons projects into many constituencies
Public opinion __________.
has greater force in democracies than in authoritarian governments
Public support for involvement in a war typically __________.
starts high and decreases over the long run
Diversionary foreign policy refers to __________.
adopting a foreign policy to distract public attention from domestic issues
With respect to legislatures playing a role in deciding whether to use military force, __________.
most legislators know little about foreign affairs
One of the state characteristics that comparative foreign policy studies focus on is __________.
The study of foreign policy in various states in order to discover whether similar types of governments have similar types of policies is known as __________.
comparative foreign policy
The military-industrial complex consists of __________.
governmental agencies, industrial corporations, and research institutes
work in embassies and consulates abroad
The backing of opposite sides in the Laotian civil war in 1960 by the CIA and the U.S. State Department is an example of __________.
The military-industrial complex predicts that close relationships between __________, the military, and __________ will encourage spending on weapons systems regardless of strategic or military effectiveness.
defense contractors; Congress
With respect to the role of bureaucratic agencies in foreign policy making, __________.
bargaining among agencies suggests that a state does not have a single national interest
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict concerns the right of __________.
a palestinian state to exist
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