71 terms

Physiology Exam 2

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The process of oxidative metabolism that breaks down 1 Acetyl CoA molecule and produces: 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP and 3 carbon dioxide
Krebs cycle
Cellular energy production pathway dependent upon O2 to bind to H+
Electron Transport Chain
Macronutrient that contributes to anaerobic energy production
Carbs
The storage form for excess energy from Carbs, lipids or proteins in the diet
Triglycerides
A compound formed to allow glycolysis to continue
Lactate
The intermediary formed in order to begin the oxidative processing of pyruvate
acetyl CoA
Molecular compound that shuttles H+ from glycolysis, Krebs cycle, or beta oxidation to the electron transport chain
NADH
Stored for of carbs
glycogen
By-products of lipid catabolism that enter beta oxidation
Free fatty acids
Catabolism of this substrate provides ~5% of the total ATP produces
Carbohydrates (glucose)
Form of macronutrient storage in the liver and muscle
glycogen
Metabolic by-product when there is a limited oxidative energy production
lactate
Rate limiting enzyme for glycolysis
Phosphofructokinase
Rate-limiting enzyme for ATP synthesis from phosphocreatine
creatine kinase
Amount of lipids stored in adipose tissue
unlimited
Amount of carbohydrates stored intramuscularly
400 g
Preferred energy system for exercise transitions
Glycolytic system
Preferred energy system for long duration (but low intensity) exercise
Oxidative system
The formation of glucose in the liver from lactate or amino acids
Gluconeogenesis
The breakdown of fats into free fatty acids and glycerol
Lipolysis
End product of glycolysis
Pyruvate
End product of the electron transport chain
water
the conversion of substrates into ATP
Bioenergetics
A chemical reaction in which substrates broken down
Catabolic
Measure of heat production
Calorie
energy currency of the body
adenosine triphospate
the energy system that can utilize carbohydrate and lipids (protein too) to provide ATP
Oxidative
the energy system that can provide energy for up to three minutes
ATP-PCr
Can produce >300 ATP from triclyceride utilization
Oxidative energy system
Can power high intensity, near maximal exercise for ~3 seconds
Stored ATP
Basic fuel source, such as carbs, proteins, and fats
Substrate
An organic compound formed from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes starches, sugars and cellulose
Carbohydrate
The form of carbohydrate stored in the body. Found predominantly in the liver and muscle
Glycogen
The conversion of glucose to glycogen
Glycogenolysis
The body's most concentrated energy source and the form in which most fats are stored in the body
Triglycerides
A high energy phosphate compound from which the body derives its energy
Adenosine Triphophate
An enzyme found early in a metabolic pathway that determines the rate of the pathway
Rate limited enzyme
A salted formed from lactic acid
Lactate
A series of chemical reactions that involve the complete oxidation of Acetyl CoA and produce 2 mol of ATP along with hydrogen and carbon. Which combine with oxygen to form H2O & CO2
Krebs Cycle
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Beta Oxidation
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Glucose Alanine Cycle
Term given to the study of metabolic processes that yield or consume energy
Bioenergetics
A class of organic compounds with limited water solubility that exists in the body in many forms, such as triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids and steriods
fats/lipids
Six carbon sugar that is primary form of carbohydrate used for metabolism
glucose
The conversion of protein or fat in glucose
gluconeogenesis
The components of fat that are used by the body for metabolism
free fatty acids
...
ATP, ADP, AMP
the breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid
glycolysis
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Lactate shuttle
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NADH, FADH2
An energy rich compound that plays a critical role in providing energy for muscle action by maintaining ATP concentration
Phosphocreatine, PCr
...
Glucose pool
All energy producing and energy using processes within the body
Metabolism
A class of nitrogen containing compounds formed by amino acids
proteins
the conversion of glucose to glycogen
glycogenesis
The process of converting protein into fatty acids
lipogenesis/lipolysis
...
glycerol
the addition of a phosphate group to a molecule
phosphorylation
...
pyruvate
the compound that forms the common entry point into the kreb's cycle for the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat
acetyl CoA
A series of chemical reactions that convert the hydrogen ion generated by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle into water and produce energy for oxidative phosphorylation
electron transport chain
...
cori cycle
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Aerobic energy production
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Anaerobic energy production
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creatine kinase
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adenylate
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kinase
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lactate dehydrogenase
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phophofuctokinase
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ATP synthase
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lipase