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Biology Chapter 11 How Genes Are Controlled
Terms in this set (46)
When the cells become specialized in structure and function
The turning on and off of genes, that leads to this specialization.
The overall process in which genetic information flows from genes to proteins, from one genotype to phenotype.
Cluster of genes with related functions, along with the DNA control sequences.
One control sequence, is the site where the enzyme RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription of the genes for lactose enzymes.
Is between promoter and the enzyme genes, a DNA segment which acts as switch that is turned on or off, depending on whether a specific protein is bound there.
A protein which binds to the operator an physically blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter.
X chromosome inactivation
Once this occurs, all the descendants of the cell will have the same copy of the inactivated X chromosome
A protein that functions in initiating or regulating transcription
A eukaryotic DNA sequence that helps function the transcription of a gene at some distance from it
A eukaryotic DNA sequence that inhibits the start of a gene transcription
A protein that switches on a gene or group of genes by binding to DNA
alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript
signal transduction pathway
Molecular changes that converts a signal received on a cell's surface to a specific place in the cell
A master control gene that finds out the identity of the body structure of a developing organism
A glass slide containing thousands of different kind of single-stranded DNA fragments arranged in an array
complementary DNA (cDNA)
A DNA molecule made into vitro using mRNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase
The regrowth of body parts from pieces of an organism
When the nucleus of one cell is placed into another cell that already contains a nucleus or has been destroyed
Using a somatic cell from a multicellular organism creating one or more genetically identical individual
The cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes
embryonic stem cells (ES cells)
Cells in the early animal embryo that differentiate during development to give rise to all the special kinds of cells in the body
adult stem cells
A cell in adult tissues that generate replacements for non dividing differentiating cells
A cancer-causing gene
A normal gene that can be converted to a cancer-causing gene
A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulate other cells to divide
A gene whose product inhibits cell division
What is cancer risk and prevention?
Reducing exposure to carcinogens and making other healthful lifestyles choices can help reduce cancer risk.
What is cell signaling ?
Cell to cell signaling is key to the development ad functioning of multicellular organism. Signal transduction pathways convert molecular messages to ell responses, such as the transcription of particular genes.
What are homeotic genes?
Evidence for the ecoluntinaly importance f gene regulation is apparent in homeotic genes, master genes that regulate other gens that in turn control embryonic development.
What is reproductive cloning of animals?
Nuclear transplantation is a procedure whereby a donor cell nucleus is inserted into a nucleus-free egg. First demonstrated in frogs in the 1950's reproductive cloning was use in 1996 to clone a sheep from an adult mammary cell and has since been used to create many other cloned animals.
What is therapeutic cloning and stem cells?
The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to produce embryonic stem cells for medical uses. Both embryonic and adult stem cells show promise for future therapeutic uses.
What is the genetic potential of cells?
Most differentiated cells retain complete set of genes, so an orchid plant, for example can be made to grow from a single orchid cell. Under special conditions, animals can also be cloned.
What are the genes that cause cancer ?
Cancer cells, which divide uncontrollably, can result from mutations in genes whose protein products regulate the cell cycle. Many proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes code for proteins active in signal transduction pathways regulating cell division. Mutations of these genes cause malfunction of the pathway. Cancer result form a series of genetic change in a cell lineage. Researchers have gained insight into the genetic basis of breast cancer by studying families in which a disease predisposing mutation is inherited.
Your bone cells, muscles cells, and skin cells look differently because ?
Different genes are active in each kind of cell.
A group of prokaryotic genes with related functions that are regulated as a single unit, along with the control sequences that perform this regulation, is called a(n)
The regulation of gene expression must be more complex in multicellular eukaryotes than in prokaryotes because
in a multicellular eukaryote, different cells are specialized for different functions.
A eukaryotic gene was inserted into the DNA of a bacterium. The bacterium then transcribed this gene into mRNA and translated the mRNA into protein. The protein produced was useless an contained many more amino acids than the protein made by the eukaryotic cell. Why?
The mRA was not spliced as t is in the eukaryotes.
How does dense packing of DNA in chromosomes prevent gene expression?
DNA polymerase and other proteins required for transcription do not have access to tightly packed DNA.
What evidence demonstrated that differentiated cells in a plant or animal retain their full genetic potential?
The ability of these cells to produce entire organism through cloning
The most common procedure for cloning an animal is?
What is learned from a DNA microarray?
which genes are active in particular sample of cells.
Name 3 potential sources of stem cells.
embryonic tissue (ES cells), umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow (adult stem cells)
What is the difference between oncogenes ad proto-oncogenes? How can one turn into the other? What function do proto-oncogenes serve?
Proto-oncogenes are normal genes involved in the control of the cell cycle. Mutation or viruses can cause them to be converted t oncogenes, o cancer-causing genes. Proto-oncogenes are necessary for normal control of cell division.
A mutation in a single gene may cause a major change in the body of fruit fly, such as an extra pair of legs or wings? Yet it takes many gene cause such a big change in the body? What are such gene called?
Master control genes, called homeotic genes, regulate many other genes during development.
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