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Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free-living helminths?
Which of the following statements is false?
Fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions.
In which of the following ways do viruses differ from bacteria?
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?
They cannot reproduce themselves outside a host.
A persistent infection is an infection in which
The disease process occurs gradually over a long period.
Generally, in a DNA-containing virus infection, the host animal cell supplies all of the following EXCEPT
Put the following in the correct order for DNA-virus replication:
1-Maturation; 2-DNA synthesis; 3-Transcription; 4-Translation.
2, 3, 4, 1
Assume a patient had chickenpox (human herpesvirus 3) as a child. Which line on the graph in Figure 13.2 would show the number of viruses present in this person as a 60-year-old with shingles (human herpesvirus 3)?
Assume a patient has influenza. During which time (on the graph in Figure 13.2) would the patient show the symptoms of the illness?
The following steps occur during multiplication of herpesviruses. What is the third step?
Which of the following statements is true?
Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because
Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
Are present for a relatively short time.
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is false?
The patient was infected before hospitalization.
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is false?
Houseflies are an important vector.
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
Are changes felt by the patient.
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following EXCEPT
Microbes trying to cause disease.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
All are matched:
Influenza - droplet infection.
Salmonellosis - vehicle transmission. Malaria - vector.
Syphilis - direct contact.
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?
All are contributing factors:
Errors in aseptic technique
Normal microbiota on the operating room staff
Using syringes more than once
Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.
Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?
Neutrophils - monocytes
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?
What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?
Artificially acquired passive immunity
Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of
Naturally acquired passive immunity.
The best definition of antigen is
A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies.
The best definition antibody is
A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen.
Patient's serum, influenza virus, and red blood cells are mixed in a tube. What happens if the patient has antibodies against influenza virus?
A reaction between an antibody and soluble antigen-forming lattices is called a(n)
Which of the following is a pregnancy test used to find the fetal hormone HCG in a woman's urine using anti-HCG and latex spheres?
Passive agglutination reaction
Which of the following is a test to determine patient's blood type by mixing patient's red blood cells with antisera?
Direct agglutination reaction
Which of the following is a test to determine the presence of soluble antigens in patient's saliva?
Which of the following statements about type I hypersensitivities is false?
They are cell-mediated.
Which of the following statements about type IV hypersensitivities is false?
They can be passively transferred with serum.
In rheumatoid arthritis, IgM, IgG, and complement deposit in joints. This is an example of
Immune complex autoimmunity.
MMR vaccine contains hydrolyzed gelatin. A person receiving this vaccine could develop an anaphylactic reaction if the person has
Antibodies against gelatin.
A preparation of killed, inactivated, or attenuated microorganisms or toxoids to indicate artificially acquired active immunity.
An altered, enhanced immune reaction leading to pathological changes; also called allergy.(anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immune complex, cell-mediated/delayed-type reaction)
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