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138 terms


Microbiology FINAL - study guide
Escherichia coli belongs to the
You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)
Gram stain.
Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria in that they
Lack a cell wall.
Which of the following statements about fungi is false?
All fungi are unicellular.
Which of the following statements about helminths is false?
All are parasites.
Which of the following statements about the Oomycote algae is false?
They have chlorophyll.
Which of the following statements is false?
Lichens are parasites.
Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free-living helminths?
Reproductive system
Which of the following statements is false?
Fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Green algae - prokaryotic.
Which of the following statements about algae is false?
All are unicellular.
All algae are
Plants. Unicellular. Photo-autotrophs.
Which of the following is the most effective control for malaria?
In a food chain consisting of the following organisms, which acts as a producer?
In which of the following ways do viruses differ from bacteria?
Viruses are not composed of cells.
Which of the following statements provides the most significant support for the idea that viruses are nonliving chemicals?
They cannot reproduce themselves outside a host.
Which of the following statements about spikes is false?
They are used for penetration.
Which of the following is NOT used as a criterion to classify viruses?
Biochemical tests
Which of the following is NOT a method of culturing viruses?
In culture media
The definition of lysogeny is
Phage DNA is incorporated into host cell DNA.
A viroid is
A nonenveloped, infectious piece of RNA.
In Figure 13.1, which structure is a complex virus?
In Figure 13.1, the structures illustrated are composed of
A clear area against a confluent "lawn" of bacteria is called a
A persistent infection is an infection in which
The disease process occurs gradually over a long period.
An infectious protein is a
Generally, in a DNA-containing virus infection, the host animal cell supplies all of the following EXCEPT
DNA polymerase.
Put the following in the correct order for DNA-virus replication:
1-Maturation; 2-DNA synthesis; 3-Transcription; 4-Translation.
2, 3, 4, 1
Assume a patient had chickenpox (human herpesvirus 3) as a child. Which line on the graph in Figure 13.2 would show the number of viruses present in this person as a 60-year-old with shingles (human herpesvirus 3)?
Assume a patient has influenza. During which time (on the graph in Figure 13.2) would the patient show the symptoms of the illness?
The following steps occur during multiplication of herpesviruses. What is the third step?
A commensal bacterium
May be an opportunistic pathogen.
Which of the following statements is true?
Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together.
A nosocomial infection is
Acquired during the course of hospitalization.
The major significance of Koch's work was that
Microorganisms cause disease.
Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because
Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms.
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time
Which of these infections can cause septicemia?
Focal infection
Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
Systemic infection
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
Are present for a relatively short time.
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is false?
The patient was infected before hospitalization.
Which of the following is NOT a communicable diseases?
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is false?
Houseflies are an important vector.
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
Secondary infection : a long-lasting illness
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
Are changes felt by the patient.
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following EXCEPT
Microbes trying to cause disease.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
All are matched:
Influenza - droplet infection.
Salmonellosis - vehicle transmission. Malaria - vector.
Syphilis - direct contact.
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?
All are contributing factors:
Errors in aseptic technique
Normal microbiota on the operating room staff
Using syringes more than once
Antibiotic resistance
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of
Vehicle transmission.
Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of
Droplet transmission.
A sexually transmitted disease is an example of
Direct contact.
Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef is an example of
Vehicle transmission.
A needlestick is an example of
Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine is an example of
Vehicle transmission.
Plague transmitted by a flea is an example of
The most likely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague between humans is
Droplet transmission.
Which one of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?
Bacteria causing disease
The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of
Antagonistic bacteria.
Innate immunity is
The body's defenses against any kind of pathogen.
Which of the following is NOT a physical factor protecting the skin and mucous membranes from infection?
The function of the "ciliary escalator" is to
Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract.
Which of the following exhibits the highest phagocytic activity?
Which of the following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues?
Neutrophils - monocytes
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding which of the following?
Toll-like receptors
The swelling associated with inflammation decreases when the fluid
Goes into lymph capillaries.
Which of the following is NOT an effect of histamine?
Which of the following is NOT a function of inflammation?
To produce antibodies
Chill is a sign that
Body temperature is rising.
Which of the following is involved in resistance to parasitic helminths?
Macrophages arise from which of the following?
Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?
Natural killer cell
What type of immunity results from vaccination?
Artificially acquired active immunity
What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?
Artificially acquired passive immunity
What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?
Naturally acquired active immunity
A human's resistance to canine distemper is an example of
Innate immunity.
Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of
Naturally acquired passive immunity.
What type of immunity is NOT due to antibodies?
Innate immunity
Immunity due to injection of an antigen is an example of
Artificially acquired passive immunity
The antibodies found in mucus, saliva, and tears are
The antibodies found on B cells are
The antibodies that can bind to large parasites are
In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are
Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are
The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is
The best definition of antigen is
A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies.
The best definition antibody is
A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen.
In Figure 17.2, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?
c and d
In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?
a and b
In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?
a and b
In Figure 17.2, what can attach to a host cell?
Which of the following is NOT normally used in a vaccine?
Patient's serum, influenza virus, and red blood cells are mixed in a tube. What happens if the patient has antibodies against influenza virus?
A reaction between an antibody and soluble antigen-forming lattices is called a(n)
Precipitation reaction.
A reaction between antibody and particulate antigen is called a(n)
Agglutination reaction
What type of vaccine involves host synthesis of viral antigens?
Nucleic acid vaccine
What type of vaccine is live measles virus?
Attenuated whole-agent vaccine
Which of the following is a pregnancy test used to find the fetal hormone HCG in a woman's urine using anti-HCG and latex spheres?
Passive agglutination reaction
Which of the following is a test to determine patient's blood type by mixing patient's red blood cells with antisera?
Direct agglutination reaction
Which of the following is a test to determine the presence of soluble antigens in patient's saliva?
Precipitation reaction
Inactivated tetanus toxin is a(n)
Toxoid vaccine.
In Figure 18.1, which component came from the patient in this ELISA test?
Which of the following uses fluorescent-labeled antibodies?
Flow cytometry
Hypersensitivity is due to
An altered immune response.
The chemical mediators of anaphylaxis are
Found in basophils and mast cells.
Which of the following may result from systemic anaphylaxis?
Which type of transplant is least compatible?
Immune complexes include
Antibodies against self and complement.
Autoimmunity is due to
IgG and IgM antibodies.
Allergic contact dermatitis is due to
Sensitized T cells.
A hypersensitivity reaction occurs
On a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen.
Which of the following statements about type I hypersensitivities is false?
They are cell-mediated.
Which of the following statements about type IV hypersensitivities is false?
They can be passively transferred with serum.
Hemolytic disease of the newborn can result from
An Rh- mother with an Rh+ fetus.
Which of the following is NOT considered a type I hypersensitivity?
Transplant rejections
Desensitization involves injection of
In rheumatoid arthritis, IgM, IgG, and complement deposit in joints. This is an example of
Immune complex autoimmunity.
MMR vaccine contains hydrolyzed gelatin. A person receiving this vaccine could develop an anaphylactic reaction if the person has
Antibodies against gelatin.
Delayed hypersensitivities are due to
T cells.
A preparation of killed, inactivated, or attenuated microorganisms or toxoids to indicate artificially acquired active immunity.
An altered, enhanced immune reaction leading to pathological changes; also called allergy.(anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immune complex, cell-mediated/delayed-type reaction)
Use of one's own tissue
Use of identical twin's tissue
Use of tissue from another person
Use of nonhuman tissue
One organism benefits, and the other is unaffected
Both organisms benefit
One organism benefits at the expense of the other
The study of the cause of a disease
The development of disease
Colonization of the body by pathogens
An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
The relationship between normal microbiota and the host
A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease
A change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease