38 terms

The Heritage of the World Chapter 21

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population growth
the phenomenon that occurred in Europe during the early nineteenth century
The Great Hunger
the result of a fungus that destroyed potato crops in Ireland during the mid-nineteenth century, killing tens of thousands of people
railroads, canals, roads
three transportation methods which were expanded during the Industrial Revolution
proletarianization
the process through which artisans and factory workers came to participate in a wage-labor force in which their labor became a commodity of the labor marketplace
Chartism
the political mvoement associated with the London Working Men's Association's 1838 proposal for political reform
English Factory Act of 1833
the act which forbade the meployment of children under age nine, limited the workday of children aged nine to thirteen to nine hours a day, and required the factory to pay for two hours of education a day for these children
police and prison reform
the response to the rise in crime during the nineteenth centry
Malthus
the classical economist who contended that population must eventually outstrip the food supply
Ricardo
the classical economist who suggested in Principles of Poltical Economy that if wages were raised, parents would have more children, thus expanding the number of workers and lowering wages
Principles of Political Economy
the book by David Ricardo which put forth the "iron law of wages"
Zollverein
the free trading union which comprised all of the major German states except Austria
Bentham
the classical eocnomist who promoted utilitarianism
utilitarianism
the theory which maintained that people should always pursue the course that promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest number
Anti-Corn Law League
the group organized by manufacturers which sought to repeal the Corn Laws, thus lowering food prices
repeal of the Corn Law
the goal of the Anti-Corn Law League
utopian socialism
the theory that criticized industrialism and sought to establish ideal soieties based on noncapitalistic values
Saint-Simon
the earliest socialist pioneer who believed modern society would require rational management (by a board of directors) of private wealth, property, and enterprise
Owen
the major British contributor to early socialist tradition, who owned a cotton factory and believed in the environmentalist psychology of the Enlightenment derived from the thought of John Locke
Fourier
the major French contributor to early socialist tradition, who believed social discipline ignored all the pleasures that human beings naturally seek
anarchists
term for those who opposed any cooperation with industry or government
Blanqui
the major spokesperson for terror who sought to abolish capitalism with a professional revolutionary vanguard
Proudhon
the proponent of anarchy on the basis of mutualism, a system of small businesses among which there would be peaceful cooperation
Marxism
the social movement begun by Karl Marx in the mid-nineteenth century that differed from competing socialist views primarily in its claim to a scientific foundation and in its insistence on reform through revolution
Marx and Engels
the founders of Marxism
The Communist Manifesto
Marx and Engel's publication for the Communist League which promoted Marxism
Capital
Marx's second major work
1848
the year when The Communist Manifesto was published, and when a series of liberal and nationalistic revolutions erupted across Europe
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon's nephew, who became the president of France in 1848
Second Republic
the French government which preceded the election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon III
In December 1865, Louis Napoleon became Emperor ____ __.
Kossuth
the Magyar nationalist who attacked Austrian domination and called for the independence of Hungary, provoking a series of disturbances
Magyars
the Hungarian liberals, supported by nobles, who wanted their aristocaratic liberties guaranteed against the central government in Vienna
Czechs
the people who demanded that Bohemia and Moravia be permitted to constitute an autonomous Slavic state within the empire similar to that just enacted in Hungary
Mazzini and Garibaldi
the two most prominent Italian Republican nationalists who flocked to Rome, hoping to use the new republic as a base of operations to unite the rest of Italy under a republican government
Victor Emmanuel II
Charles Albert's son who took the throne after his father abdicated
Roman Republic
the Italian independent government which was dissolved after the Battle of Novara
Frederick William IV
the Prussian monarch who refused to turn his troops on the Berliners, announced limited reforms, and pledged to help unify Germany
Frankfurt Parliament
the liberal gathering which sought to produce a moderately liberal constitution for a united Germany, but failed