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Chapter 4 Nutrition (Test 1)
Terms in this set (80)
Refined grains contain:
Refined grains that are enriched contain:
iron, niacin, thiamin
The monosaccharide that is most important as an energy source for the body is:
(T/F): Glycogen is the storage of carbohydrates in plants.
(T/F): Beans tend to be high in soluble fiber.
Steps in starch digestion:
Salivary amylase begins to break down starch in the mouth, Pancreatic amylases break down starch in the small intestine, Bacteria partially break fiber down in the large intestine
Indigestible carbohydrates are good for health because:
they inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria
(T/F): Fiber causes a greater glycemic response than refined carbohydrates.
The hormone that allows glucose to enter cells is:
The type of diabetes which accounts for 90-95% of all cases is:
What health conditions commonly occur in people with uncontrolled diabetes?
blindness, kidney disease, increase risk of <3 disease
A low carb diet promotes weight loss when:
fewer calories are eaten
How does fiber benefit colon health?
By absorbing water in the GI tract, Reducing constipation, Reducing contact between cells lining the colon and cancer causing substances
kcal/gram for carbs?
AMDR for carbs?
What are some dietary sources for carbohydrates?
whole & refined grains, fruit, milk, legumes, vegetables, nuts & seeds
contains fiber, germ, endosperm & bran
milling removes bran & germ, as well as some nutrients lost in refining (enriched bread - white or wheat; white rice; many breakfast cereals)
nutrients added back in that were lost in refinement
typical american diet contains ~16% of calories from added sugars also called "empty calories"
naturally occurring sugars
found in natural foods like milk & fruit
largest part. Starch mostly, but contains protein and some vitamins & minerals (REMAINS AFTER REFINEMENT)
contain most of fiber and are good source of vitamins & minerals (LOST IN REFINEMENT)
base of the kernel - the embryo where spouting occurs. contains oils & vitamin E. (LOST IN REFINEMENT)
What is added back after enrichment?
folic acid, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, iron
Not replaced in enrichment?
fiber, magnesium, phytochemicals, vitamin E, healthy fats
What are the simple carbohydrates?
monosaccharides and disaccharides
Which simple carb is the primary energy source of the body?
glucose + glucose (breads)
glucose + fructose (table sugar)
galactose + glucose (dairy products)
the storage form of carbohydrates in animals, made up of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure
a carbohydrate found in plants, made up of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branching chains
a type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes
starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy people
raises blood glucose by signaling liver cells to break down glycogen into glucose, which is released into the blood
a hormone made in the pancreas that allows glucose to enter cells and stimulates the synthesis of protein, fat, and liver and muscle glycogen. Allows glucose to be taken into the body cells, causing blood glucose levels to drop.
fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs waster and can be broken down by intestinal microflora. It includes pectins, gums & some hemicelluloses (oats, apples, bananas, beans, peas, carrots)
fiber that does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. Includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses and lignin (bran, brown rice, whole-wheat bread, beans, vegetables)
Health benefits of soluble fiber:
combines with bile in GI tract to eliminate some fat. May help reduce blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease
Health benefits of insoluble fiber:
provides bulk in the intestine to ease elimination
What is the fate of indigestible carbohydrates once they reach the large intestine?
enter the large intestine; pull in water (softens stools); enhances peristalsis; some are broken down to short chain fatty acids, then absorbed; the rest is excreted in feces
What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?
energy (recommended intake = 4 kcal/g & 45-65% AMDR)
a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose due to either insufficient production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin
type 1 diabetes
least common (5-10% of cases); usually developed in childhood/early adult years; an autoimmune disease damaging part of the pancreas (losing the ability to make & secrete insulin)
type 2 diabetes
more common (90-95% of cases); probably due to genetic and lifestyle factors, initially produce but cells are resistant to insulins effect
risk factors of type 2 diabetes?
obesity, overweight, physical activity, family history, high blood pressure
a consistant elevation of blood glucose levels to between 100 & 125 mg/dl of blood, a level above normal but not high enough to be diagnostic of diabetes; thought to increase the risk of developing diabetes
short term complications with diabetes?
frequent urination, hunger, excess thirst, blurry vision, weight loss coincides with elevated blood glucose
long term complications with diabetes?
complications arise from poor control of blood glucose levels; loss of vision, stroke, amputation
diet and lifestyle changes recommended to prevent diabetes?
regular physical activity; maintain/attain a healthy weight; well-balanced diet containing: lean protein, reduced intake of fats/cholesterol, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, low fat milk/dairy
The addition of any nutrients to a processed food is referred to as __________.
Which monosaccharide is commonly found in ALL disaccharides?
Which is a complex carbohydrate?
Can fiber be broken down by human digestive enzymes?
Which type of fiber has a laxative effect by adding bulk to fecal matter as it passes, unchanged, through the gastrointestinal tract?
Describe the effects of lactose intolerance on those who consume dairy products
The undigested lactose passes into the large intestine draws in water, is metabolized by bacteria, producing gas and causing abdominal digestion, gas, cramping, and diarrhea
Describe the health impact of indigestible carbs as a food source for bacteria in the colon:
inhibiting the growth of disease-causing bacteria, may help prevent and treat inflammation in the bowel, may provide protection against colon cancer
What roles to carbohydrates play in the body?
provide energy; galactose is needed by nerve tissue; in breast-feeding moms, galactose combines with glucose to produce lactose; monosaccharides ribose and deoxyribose play non-energy roles as components of DNA & RNA
What hormone assists in normalizing blood glucose levels when blood sugar drops below normal?
Symptoms and complications of uncontrolled diabetes include all of the following EXCEPT:
What term is used to describe the process where by bacteria on the teeth metabolize carbs, producing tooth-damagin acids?
Which type of dietary fiber blocks bile reabsorption and promotes dietary cholesterol excretion?
What is likely to happen after you eat a large carb-rich meal?
your pancreas releases insulin
Foods high in added sugar provide __________.
What are the types of simple carbohydrates?
fructose - fruit sugar
lactose - milk sugar
glucose - blood sugar
The digestive enzymes that break disaccharides into monosaccharides are located in the _________.
When blood glucose levels drop, what happens?
glucagon is released; glycogen is broken down; amino acids from protein are used to make glucose
What is true about soluble fiber?
it adds bulk to the intestinal contents
People who are lactose intolerant do not produce enough of the enzyme _______.
A high fiber diet may help protect against which of the following?
heart disease, diverticulosis, large swings in blood glucose
The rise in blood glucose levels stimulates the ________ to secrete insulin.
In the mouth, amylase from the salivary glands helps to begin ____ digestion.
Enzymes attached to the ________ of the small intestinal vili complete the digestion of carbohydrates.
Glycolysis is called anaerobic metabolism because _______ is not required at this step.
Cellular respiration uses O2 to convert glucose to CO2 and H2O and provide energy to cells in form of ___.
Hunger is stimulated when blood ______ drops.
(T/F): No carbohydrate digestion occurs in the stomach.
The muscle uses _______ as energy reserves.
Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into body cells for use in ___ production.
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