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Chapter 3

Skeletal System

The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.

Compact Bone

1 of the 2 basic types of bone.
It's dense and looks smooth and homogenous.

Spongey bone/cancels bone

1 of the 2 basic types of bone.
It's composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space
Inside is red marrow


Blood formation

Long Bone

Typically longer than they are wide.
They have a shaft with heads at both ends.
They are mostly compact bones.
All bones of the limbs except the wrist and ankle bones are long.

Short Bone

Generally cubed-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone.
Wrist and ankle are an example

Flat Bone

Thin, flattened and usually carved.
They have two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them.
The skull, ribs, and sternum are flat.

Irregular Bone

Bones that do not fit one of the proceeding categories.
The vertebrae and hip bones are irregular.

Sesamoid Bone

special type of short bone that forms in tendons; ex: patella; purpose is to alter direction of pull of a tendon


Middle of the long bone also known as the shaft.


The ends of a long bone.
Each consists of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone.

Medullary Canal

The cavity of the shaft that is primarily a storage area for yellow marrow (produces fat cells).

5 main functions

1) Support
2) Protection
3) Movement
4) Storage of minerals
5) Blood formation called Hematopoiesis

sharpies fibers

Thread-like structures that connect Periosteum to the surface of the bone.


A fibrous connective tissue membrane that connects bone to muscle.
This membrane surrounds the outside of a bone.
Periosteum is connected to the bone by millions of thread-like structures called sharpies fibers


Is the other muscle membrane - this membrane is found inside the medullary canal.
plays a role in producing some bone cells.

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