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Terms in this set (59)
According to Erikson, development that encourages changes both in the understandings individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others behavior.
According to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3-->6 experience conflict btw independence and action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
A person's identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual.
Minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people.
overestimate their skills, and are very optimistic. They do not compare themselves against others.
Asian cultures, view themselves as part of a larger network in which they are interconnected with and responsible for others.
Emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual. U.S cultures.
Boys tend to play with boys and girls play with girls
The perception of oneself as a male or female
A cognitive framework that organizes relevant gender.
The awareness that ppl are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors.
A state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes.
cognitive developmental theory
Proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg that rigidity is a reflection of preschoolers gender understanding.
According to Erikson, during the preschool years children face a key conflict relating to psychosocial development that involves the development of ___
"I am a terrific jump roper." ---
Biological characteristics associated with a person's sex do not appear to be related to gender differences
after age 3 friendships for preschoolers begin to develop
play that involves, simple, repetitive activities typical of 3 year olds.
Play in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner but do not interact with each other.
Action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other.
Action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves
Play in which 2 or more children actually interact with 1 another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing.
Play in which children genuinely interact with 1 another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests.
parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold and whose word is law. They value strict unquestioning obedience from their children & do not tolerate expressions of disagreement
Parents who provide lax & inconsistent feedback & require little of their children.
Parents who are firm, setting clear & consistent limits, but try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way.
Parents who show almost no interest in their children & indifferent, rejecting behavior.
Neglect is the most frequent form of abuse
No single parenting style or pattern is universally appropriate
cycle of violence hypothesis
the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children.
Abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.
psychological maltreatment children
stress, fear, and terror overstimulation of limbic system...memory and emotion....antisocial behavior during adulthood.
The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage.
How should you discipline your children?
1. Authoritative parenting works best
2. Spanking should not be used
3. Use time-out for punishment
4. Tailor parental discipline to the characteristics of the situation for the child individually
5. Use routines (bedtime etc) to avoid conflict
When it comes to play, younger preschoolers focus on ___ and older preschoolers focus on ___.
sharing activities; trust and shared interests
As preschoolers get older; their play shifts from more social to more functional
What are some characteristics of a child you has a authoritative parent?
independent, achievement-oriented, likable
The changes in people's sense of justice & of what is right and wrong, & in their behavior related to moral issues.
Helping behavior that benefits others
What child Psychologist was first to study moral development?
Rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable ...4--7 yrs...children play rigidly.
autonomous cooperation stage
begins at age 10, children become aware that formal game rules can be modified if the players agree.
What stage is the beginning of the understanding of rules if law are created by ppl and are subject to change
autonomous cooperation stage
The process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles
The understanding of what another individual feels.
Intentional injury or harm to another person.
children learn moral behavior indirectly by observing the behavior of others__
degree of aggression changes as children become older
emotional self regulation
The capability of adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity.
Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal.
Nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's psychological well-being.
What do social learning approaches emphasize?
How social & environmental conditions teach individuals to be aggressive.
Source of media violence
television, & video games
some children are more prone than others to assume that actions are aggressively motivated
Observation of ___ models can reduce aggression.
Ways to reduce aggressive behavior in preschool children?
1. Provide opportunities for children to watch positive role models.
2. Do not ignore aggressive behavior
3. Help preschoolers come up wit alternative explanations for their behavior.
4. Monitor preschoolers t.v viewing
5. Help preschoolers understand their feelings
6. Teach reasoning and self control
The term __ development refers to changes in our sense of justice & our understanding of behaviors related to what is right & wrong.
According to the ___ theory, the factor that increases the likelihood that a preschooler will engage in prosocial behavior is his or her environment.
Aggression is an unstable characteristic in that aggressive preschoolers rarely grow up to be aggressive adults
False...think they model after their parents.
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