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The tendency for molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
the diffusion of molecules across the cell membrane with the aid of carrier proteins. No energy or ATP is required.
the passive movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated one
the active movement of molecules by specific carrier proteins; molecules may move against a concentration gradient; energy required in the form of ATP
- is the second hardest natural substance in the body - the hardest substance is tooth enamel
- A vital living tissue with the ability to heal itself
- Composed of cells embedded in a hard matrix. Soft material becomes hard bone as calcium and phosphate are added
Osteoblasts - Bone Cels
build bone. Osteoblasts secrete the matrix and supply the calcium and phosphate to harden the bone
mature bone cells trapped in the hard matrix. an osteocyte can revert back into an osteoblast
responsible for eating excess bone away. Necessary for remodeling of bone. Also allow the body to withdraw calcium from bone to raise calcium levels in the blood
Occurs only in the bones that form parts of the skull. Bone forms from fibrous membranes that cover the brain in the developing fetus
shaft of a long bone. In the developing fetus when cartilage is being replaced by bone, the diaphsis is the primary growth center
Epipyseal or growth plates (physis)
areas between the diaphysis and the epiphysis where new bone is formed. Cartilage plates in very young animals that allow the bones to lengthen as the animal grows. When the plates ossify, the bone stops growing in length.
tiny blood vessels from the periosteum pass through the bone at right angles in passageways through the bone called Volkmann's canals. Source for most of the blood supply to the bone cells. Blood vessels in Volkmann's canals join with blood vessels in Haversian canals
run lengthwise in the bone; contain blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves that supply the osteocytes in the Haversian systems
Large channels in some larger bones, esp. long bones, that provide passageway for large blood vessels. These larger vessels primarily carry blood into and out of bone marrow. On a radiograph a nutrient foramina can look like a crack in the bone cortex
spongy bone; tiny spicules of bone with marrow in between. Helps make the bone lighter but still strong.
heavy, dense, and strong. In the diaphyses of long bones and forms the outside layer of all bones. Compact bone is composed of tiny, tightly compacted cylinders of bone called haversian systems
concentric layers of dense bone arranged around a central canal; run lengthwise in the shafts of long bones
the fibrous membrane that covers the outside of bone EXCEPT for their articular ( joint ) surfaces. (The inner surface of the periosteum contains osteoblasts that allow bone to increase in diameter and are involved in the healing of bone fractures.)
vertebrae, some skull bones, sesamoid bones. Sesamoid bones are found in some tendons
Red Bone Marrow
Ø Hematopoietic tissue ( produces blood cells )
Ø Major marrow in young animals
Ø Only a small percentage of the marrow in adult animals
Ø In the adult, red bone marrow is in the ends of some long bones and in bones of the pelvis and sternum ( cancellous bone
Yellow Bone Marrow
Ø Adipose tissue ( fat )
Ø Most common type of bone marrow in adults
Ø Not very hematopoietic
Ø Found in the shafts of long bones
Ø Can revert to red bone marrow if body needs to produce more blood cells
- joint surfaces
- a smooth area of compact bone where bones come into contact with one another to form joints. Each articular surface is covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage. There is no periosteum covering articular cartilage
a large round, cylindrical articular surface. The major condyles are located on the distal end of the femur and the humerus and on the occipital bone of the skull
a spherical articular surface on the proximal end of the femur, the humerus, and ribs. The head of the humerus and femur form the ball portion of the shoulder and hip ball-and-socket joints
a flat articular surface where joint movement would be a rocking motion. Examples include carpal and tarsal bones; vertebrae; and some long bones such as radius and ulna
Lumps and bumps on bones. Examples of processes include articular surfaces such as condyles and heads; and sites for muscle attachments such as vertebral spinous processes, the spine of the scapula, the greater trochanter of the femur, the tubercle of the humerus, etc
a hole in bone. Examples include nutrient foramina and the two large obturator foramina of the pelvis
Support - Functions of Bone
provides attachment sites for muscles; support for the soft tissues of the body
surrounds many delicate organs and tissues. Example - the bones of the skull protect the brain
a hormone from the thyroid gland that helps to prevent hypercalcemia by depositing excess calcium from the blood into bone
hormone from the parathyroid gland prevents hypocalcemia by withdrawing calcium from bone
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