Only $2.99/month


Terms in this set (103)

Stress occurs when people attempt to balance several different jobs at the same time and experience role overload

Studies support two hypothesis:
1. Scarcity hypothesis: Maintains that because they have only so much time and energy, women with competing demands suffer from role overload and conflict

2. Enhancement hypothesis: argues that the benefits of meaningful work in enhancing a worker's self-esteem out-weight the costs

--Role overload: The task of managing multiple roles affects both men and women, but the increase in employment of women has triggered more research on role overload and job-related stress in women. Some research findings regarding the stress of role overload have been contradictory; however the overall conclusion seems to be that what matters most is the quality of a working mother's experiences in her various roles

-Women stress is determined by the interaction of conditions at home and work. Whereas men's stress is determined ore by situations at work

Psychologically, women are more stressed by their greater unpaid workload and by a greater responsibility for duties related to home and family
--Physiologically, women had higher norepinephrine levels than men did, both during and after work, which reflected their greater workload

--For many working mothers, employment is an important source of self-esteem and life satisfaction. Single mothers are very stressed

--Partners often adjust to each other's work, which helps them function as a unit. EX: Husbands spend more hours at work after marriage while moms stay at home to take care of the family
The body;s overall reaction to stress is regulated by the central nervous system

Nervous system consists of two parts:
--The central nervous system ( the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is divided into two branches: The autonomic nervous system ( ANS) and the somatic nervous system. The ANS is divided into two branches: The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS).

--when an external event is perceived by your sense organs, sensory neurons in the somatic nervous system transmit nerve impulses to lower-level brain regions announcing the impending threat.

The reticular formation= plays a role in alerting the brain to an impending threat or challenge
--It coordinates two neural pathways of brain--body communication= Through the first, it routes information about the existence of a potential stressor to the thalamus, which sorts this sensory information and relays it to the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and higher brain regions in the cerebral cortex that interpret the meaning of the potential stressor

--Under the instructions from the SNS, the adrenal glands release hormones that cause the fight-or flight response, in which heart rate increases, the pupils dilate, stress hormones are secreted, and digestion slows.

SNS activation increases blood flow to the muscles and causes stored energy to be converted to a form that is directly usable by the muscles. Hypothalamus controls the stress response
The interaction of the SNS and adrenal medulla by the SNS. The body's initial, rapid-acting response to epinephrine and norepinephrine form the adrenal medulla under the direction of the sympathetic nervous system

--Sympatho-adreno-medullary (SAM) system
- Release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medualla
-Fight-or-flight response

--see page 131

The body's response to stress:
-During a moment of stress, the hypothalamus secrets releasing factors that coordinate the endocrine responses of the pituitary and adrenal glands. As part of the sympatho-adreno-medullary system ( SAM), the adrenal medulla releases the stress hormones epinephrine an epinephrine as the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine as the body's intial, rapid-acting response to stress. Epinephrine and norepineprine increase heart rate, breathing, and bloood pressure, slow digestion; and dilate the pupils. A second, delayed response involves the hypothalamic-pituiatry-adrenocortical (HPA) system, which triggers secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex. These steriod hormones flight inflammmation, promote, and trigger the release of stored reverses of energy

SAM and HPA: Hypothalamus secretes cortiicotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

-SAM and HPA: CRH causes the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

-SAM: ACTH causes the sympathetic ganglia to stimulate the adrenal medulla to release a mixture of epineprine and norepineprine that triggers the physiologial fight-0r-flight responses: increased heart rate, breathing, blood pressure etc..

HPA: ACTH causes the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosterids, including cortisol, that combat inflammation. promote healing, and mobilize the body's energy resources.
The field of research that emphasizes the interaction of physiological, neural, and immunological processes in stress and illness. Is a link among emotions, immunity, an ddisease

Psycho= psychological processes
neuro= neuroendocrine system ( the nervous and hormonal systems)

Immunology: The immune sysytem

PNI researchers investigate interactions between the nervous and immune sysstems, and the relationship between behavior and health
--The goal of PNI is to condict basic research that can be applied to health care

--OVERALL FINDINGS: studies demonstrates that Short-term stressors, such as loud noise and eletric shocks in the laboratory ( being called by a professor in class) can have a positive effect or up-regulation in natural immunity

--Reduced immune functioning (immunosuppression has been demonstrated following a divorce, bereavement, unemployment, and stressful bouts of exercise or military training, during exam period and when experiencing occupational stress.

Stress is also linked to lowered immune resistance to viral infections. In a study, 47% of participants lving stress-filled lives developed colds after being inoculated with a rhinovirus, compared to only 27% of those inoculated who reported relatively stress-free lives.

Psychological stress has been linked with autoimmune disorders such as coronary artery disease with accelerated progress. This connection occurs as the immune system reacts to stressful events by releasing cytokiness that promote inflammation

--Researchers found that lower rate of wound healing reflected activation of the HPA system. This was done in two ways: By assessing serum corticosteroid levels and by blocking the activity of naturally circulating stress hormones in restraint-stressed animals with a chemical that binds to corticosteroid receptor sites
--Long-term/chronci stress tends to suppress immune response

The goal of PNI is to reveal the many ways that behaviors and health are interrelated, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that unerlie these interactions

Taken together, these studies demonstrate
1. immunosuppression is part of the body's natural response to stress

2. HPA and SAM neuroendocrine response to stress reduce the body's defenses

According to this hypothesis, stress directly influences the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, each of which can lead to disease.
3. Stress may directly affect immune efficiency through the activiation of the HPA and SAM systems. T cells and B cells have receptors for corticosteroid stress horones ( which produce immunosuppression) and lymphosytes have ccatecholamine ( epineprine and norepineprine) receptors

read article:
Brief report
--Preschooler's everyday conflict at Home and Diurnal Cortisol Patterns slide 10

-Study: researchers areported the direct cardiovascular effects of social stress in daily experience in 94% married, working couples. ( page 135)

result: In both women and men, momemntary reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP). This effect was mediated by negative affect. SBP increased when participants were worrried about how their appearance or abilities were being perceived, but only if they also were frustrated or upset.

--Social-evaluative threat was also associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, but only in women, suggesting that gender help role in how evaluative threats have physiological effect

Greater conflict at home was associted wih children having a lower awakening response and flatter cortisol responses throughout the day, both of which have been linked to negativee health consequences in adulthood, inclduing earlier mortality
Seleye's Term for the body's reaction to stress, which consists of three stages;

1. Alarm= same as Cannon's fight-or-flight responses. The strength of the alarm reaction depends on the degree to which the event is perceived as a threat.

When stressful situations continue, the body's reaction progresses to stage 2
2. Resistance: Physiological arousal remains high ( BUT NOT AS HIGH AS DURING THE ALARM REACTION)
-as the body tries to adapt to the emergency of replenishing adrenal hormones. There is a decrease in the individual's ability to coupe with every day events and hassles. At this stage, people often become irritable, impatient, and increasingly vulnerable to health problems

If the stressful situation persists and resistance is no longer possible, the body enters the final stage of the GAS--
3. Exhaustion: At this point the body's energy reserves are depleted. If stress persists, disease and physical deterioration or even death may occur

--eX: one disease of exhaustion is the disease of adaptation. Among these are allergic reactions, hypertension, and common colds, as well as more serious illness caused by immune deficiencies

EX: People who have endured the prolonged stress of combat, child abuse or chronic disease may suffer enlarged adrenal glands bleeding ulcers, damage to the brain's hippocampus, and abnormalities in several other cerebral areas.

Stress disrupts neurogenesis, the brain's production of new neurons and the process by which cells divide. Women who are chronically stressed, prematurely agee because they have shorter DNA segments called telomeres at the end of chromosomes

Telomere shortening causes cells o die because they can no longer reproduce, is assciated with a wide range of age related disease

Selye's belief that all stressors produce the same physiological reactions bas been revised in the face of more recent evidence

-Some stressors led to increases in epineprine, norepineprine, and cortisol, whereas others increased only one or two of these stress hormones. Not all stressors produce the same endocrineresponses
Illness is caused by an imbalanced of bodily humors, good diet and moderation in living would cure it.
Hippocrates= father of modern medicine, argued that disease is a natural phenomenon and that the causes of disease (prevention and treatment) are knowable and worthy of serious study. Build the foundation for a scientific approach to healing. Hippocratic Oath= the oath physicians took to practice medicine ethically. He proposed the humoral theory
-Humoral theory: a concept of health proposed by Hippocrates that considered wellness a state of perfect equilibrium among four basic body fluids called humors. Sickness was believed to be the result of disturbances in the balanced of humors. Humors: blood, yellow, bile, black, and phlegm. To maintain a balance, a person had to follow a healthy lifestyle including exercise, sufficient rest, a good diet, and the avoidance of excesses. When the humors were out of balance our body and mind affected in predictable ways, depending on which of the four humors was sin excess. Hippocrates was interested din patients' emotions and thoughts regarding their health and treatment.
Hippocrates, Galen, and other Greek scholars developed the first rational approach to the study of health and disease. Non-Western forms of healing, including traditional orientatal medicine (TOM) and Ayurveda, developed simultaneously. Today we know that many diseases are caused by imbalance among the brain's neurotransmitters.
TOM: Is found on the principle that internal harmony is essential for good health. Fundamental to this harmony is the concept of qi, a vital energy or life force that ebbs and flows with changes in each person' mental, physical, and emotional well-being
Ayurveda: Human body represents the entire universe in a microcosm and that the key to health is maintained a balnce between the microsmic body and the macrocosmic world. The key is balance is held in three bodily humors: doshas, vats, pitta, and kapha
Galen wrote about anatomy, hygiene, and diet, building on the Hippocratic foundation of rational explanation and the careful description of each patient's physical symptoms. Disease caused by an excess of a hot and moist humor could be cured only with drugs that were cold and dry.
The middle Ages and the Renaissance:
--Illness was viewed as God's punishment for evildoing, and epidemic diseases such as the two great outbursts of plague that occurred during the middle Ages, were believed to be a sign of God's wrath. Vesalius said Galen made erros because he never dissected a human body. Vesalius's volumes became the cornerstones of a new scientific medicine based on anatomy.
-In Europe during the Middle Ages, scientific studies of the body (especially dissection) were forbidden, and ideas about health and disease took on religious overtones. Illness was viewed as punishment for evildoing, and treatment frequently involved what amounted to physical torture.

--French philosopher Rene Descartes advanced his theory of mind-body dualism—the belief that Human have two natures, mental and physical. The mind and the body are autonomous processes, each subject to different laws of causality. During the Renaissance, Descartes influenced ushered in an era of medical based on the scientific study of the body. This research gave rise to the anatomical, cellular, and germ theories of disease.
• Descartes believed that disease occurred when the machine broke down, and the physician's task was to repair the machine. The mind and the body are autonomous processes that interact minimally, and that each subject to different laws of causality. He rejected the notion that the mind influenced the body

Mind-body dualism: The phisophical viewpiint that mind and body are seprate entities that do not interact

The middle ages bgan with an outbreak of plague that orginate spread throughout the Roman empire, killing as many as 10,000 people a day. SO great in number were the Corpses that gravedigers could not keep up.

--Epidemic: diseases such as the two great outbursts of plagues ( a bacterial disease carried by rats and other rodents) that occurred during the Middle Ages, were believed to be a sign of God's Wrath. Treatment in this era attempted to force evil spirits out of the body
--Sigmund Freud and Franz Alexander promoted the idea that specific disease could be caused by unconscious conflicts. These views were expanded into the field of psychosomatic medicine, which is concerned with the treatment and diagnosis of disorders caused by faulty processes within the mind. Psychosomatic medicine fell out of favor because it was grounded caused by faulty processes within the mind. Psychosomatic medicine fell out of favor because it was grounded in psychoanalytic theory and predicated on the outmoded idea that a single problem is sufficient to trigger diseases.
--Freud patients exhibited symptoms such as loss of speech, deafness, and even paralysis. Freud believed that these diseases were caused by unconscious emotional conflicts that had been converted into a physical form. He called his conversion disorder.
Alexander nuclear conflict model: Each physical disease is the outcome of a fundamental, or nuclear, psychological conflict. EX; people with reheumatoid personality who tended to repress anger and were unable to express emotion, were believed to be prone to developing arthritis.
o Alexander established psychosomatic medicine.
o Psychosomatic Medicine: An outdated branch of medicine that focused on the diagnosis and treatment of physical diseases caused by faulty psychological processes. Was based on reductionism. Psychosomatic medicine is the start of multifactorial= diseases are caused by the interaction of several factors, rather than by a single, invading bacterial or viral agent. These include, biological factors such as genetic, environmental factors ( pollutants and hazardous chemicals), behavioral factors (diet, exercise, and smoking), and psychological factors ( optimism and overall hardiness)
All behaviors occur in a biological context. Health psychology draws attention to aspects of our bodies that influence health and disease: Our genetic makeup and our nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Genes provide a guideline for our biology and predispose our behaviors—health and unhealthy, normal and abnormal. EX: The tendency to abuse alcohol has been known to run in some families.
Health is best understood in a hierarchy of systems 9 our bosy systems, our immediate envionments, school, health care system, societal health care issues and values 0
Genome: set of genetic instructions that make a living organism.
Genomics: The study of the structure, function, and mapping of the genetic material of organisms.
Evolutionary perspective: Our characteristic human traits and behaviors exists as they do because they helped our distant ancestors survive long enough to reproduce and send their genes into the future. EX: People's mouth water when they see food because eating is important for them to survive.
---Genes may influence all traits—both psychological and physical, even identical twins who share identical genes, do ot have identical traits. The most important traits are epigenetic:
---Epigenetic: The effects of environmental forces o how genes are expressed some epi influences impede our chances of optimal health ( child abuse) and some improve them ( nourishing food).
EX: Research on MAOA show that boys who inherit one variation of the gene, and girls who inhrit a different variation of the same gene are more likely to engage in high-risk delingquent behavior as adolescents.
Gene-envionment effects—some genes are expressed and affect our health, while some genes are silences and remain unnoticed from one generation to the next unless circumstances such as childhood circumstances change.
The sociocultural perspective calls attention to how social and cultural factors such as ethnic variations in dietary practice and beliefs about the causes of illness affect health.
: In health psychology focuses on important age-related aspects of health and illness. EX: How a pregnant woman's malnutrition, smoking, or use of psychoactive drugs would affect her child's lifelong development.
Five major causes of death:
1. Disease
2. Cancer
3. Chronic lower respiratory diseases
4. Stroke
5. Accidents
Most older people die because of diseases caused by internal conditions (chronic diseases such as heart diseases and cancer). People age 1 to 24 years old die because of accidents, homicide, and suicide, followed by heart diseases and cancer I external causes)
Positive psychology gave rise to subjective well being: Our feelings of happiness and sense of satisfaction with life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations of a person's life. Patients who are relaxed are usually between able, and more motivated to follow their doctors' instructions. Psychological interventions assist patients in managing the everyday stresses of life that affect the immune system.
The social context:
---Gender= entails a particular, socially prescribed role that represents your sense of being a woman or a man.
Birth Cohort: A group of people born within a few years of each other.
Feeling supported by others may serve as a buffer that mitigates the output of stress hormones and keeps the body's immune defense strong during traumatic situations. It may promote better health habits, regular checks, and early screening of worrisome symptoms
Infant mortality in the United States: Les than a century, 15 percent of babies born in the United States died before their first birthday. Today 90 percent of new born babies survive to at least 1 year of age
Sociocultural Perceive: Considers how social and cultural factors contribute to health and disease. The viewpoint that it is important to understand the person fully without understanding his or her culture and ethnic identity.
Culture; enduring behaviors, values, and customs that a group of people have developed over the years and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Ethnic groups: Large groups of people who tend to have similar values and experiences because they share certain characteristics. In multiethnic culture such as US, wide disparities exist between the life expectancy and health status of ethnic minority groups and the majority population.
Socioeconomic status (SES), which is a measure of several variables, including income, education, and occupation, highest rates of chronic diseases occur in people who have lower SES levels. Sociocultural perspectives play role in the variation in health related beliefs and behaviors.
EX: Christian scientist rejected the use of medicine in their belief that sick people can be cured only through prayer.
Immigrant paradox: The finding that, although low socioeconomic status usually predicts poor health, this is not true for Hispanics and other ethnic groups in the United States.

epigenetic_ The effect of envionmental forces on how genes are expressed

Life-course perspective: Theoretical perspective that focuses on age-related aspects of health and illness