Anatomy - BIO 101 test

anatomy emmaus high school kramer
carries out all chemical activities needed to sustain life, they are the basic unit of all living things
two main parts of a cell
nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleus; location
control center of the cell; located in the center of the cell
nucleolus; location
controls ribosome production; located in the center of the nucleus
nuclear envelope/membrane; location
allows for the exchange of materials into and out of the nucleus; made of a phospholipid bilayer; located around the nucleus
chromatin; location
made of DNA and protein; condenses to form chromosomes; located in the loose network of threads inside the nucleus
cytoplasm; location
suspends all organelles; liquid part of the cell; located all around the nucleus inside the cell
plasma membrane; location
maintains boundaries for the cell; allows exchange of materials in and out of the cell; phospholipid bilayer; located around the outside of the cell
mitochondria; location
helps with cellular respiration; makes ATP; located scattered throughout the cell/cytoplasm
ribosomes; location
site for protien synthesis!; located scattered throughout the cell/cytoplasm
smooth ER; location
cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs and transport; located around the nucleus
rough ER; location
materials for plasma membrane are made and transported here; has ribosomes on it; located next to the nucleus
golgi apparatus; location
modifies and packages proteins; located in the cytoplasm of the cell
lysosomes; location
contains enzymes that break down and digest waste; located in the cytoplasm
centrioles; location
produce mitotic spindle during cell division; located two rod shaped bodies near the nucleus
vacuoles; location
storage of substances; located in the cytoplasm
5 main components of plasma membrane
1. phospholipid bilayer
2. proteins, lipids, cholestoral
3. cillia
4. flagella
5. microvilli
cilia; location
moves materials across the cell surface; located on the plasma membrane
propells certain types of cells
microvilli; location
increase the SURFACE AREA of cell for secretion and absorption; located on the plasma membrane
selectively permeable
allows only certain materials into and out of the cell
passive transport and 3 main kinds of passive transport
no energy is required to move materials through the plasma membrane in passive transport, materials move from [H]->[L] concentration naturally;
1.diffusion 2. osmosis 3.facilitated diffusion
diffusion/type of transport
goal of diffusion is dynamic equilibrium; [H]->[L] ; passive transport
osmosis/type of transport
diffusion of water through the plasma membrane; [H]->[L] ; passive transport
facillitated diffusion/ type of transport
carries, transports, and channels protiens through the plasma membrane; [H]->[L] ; passive transport
active transport and 4 main kinds of active transport
energy is required to move materials through the plasma membrane in active transport, materials move from [L]->[H] concentration;
1. enocytosis 2.phagocytosis 3. pinocytosis 4.exocytosis
endocytosis/type of transport
engulfs substances, forms vesicles, and joins lysosomes; includes phagocytosis and pinocytosis; active transport
phagocytosis/type of transport
movement of solids through the plasma membrane; active transport
pinocytosis/type of transport
movement of liquids through the plasma membrane; active transport
exocytosis/type of transport
when cells expell substances out through the plasma membrane, and the vesicle empties; active transport
cell cyle 2 main stages
1. interphase 2.mitosis
part of the cell cycle; when resting and growth occurs; when protien synthesis occurs;
G1- cell grows
S- genetic material duplicates
G2- cell prepares to divide and replicate
when the cell divides into two parts in four phases.
includes PMAT:
1. prophase 2. metaphase 3. anaphase 4. telophase
nuclear division stage in mitosis
cell/cytoplasm division stage in mitosis
first stage of mitosis; the nucleus disappears, spindle fibers form and attach to centromeres of chromosomes, centrioles move to poles
second stage of mitosis; the chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell
third stage of mitosis; spindle fibers shorten to opposite poles and centromeres of chromosomes split; cytokinesis begins!
last stage of mitosis; cytokinesis is completed; cell membrane forms clevage furrow, and nucleus reappears, 2 identical daughter cells formed
who is watson and crick?
they discovered the "DOUBLE HELIX" shape of the DNA
DNA structure
backbone of double helix- alternating deoxiribose sugars and phosphate
rungs of double helix- nitrogen bases with hydrogen bonds
DNA location
in the nucleus
DNA function
blueprint for life, takes part in heredity, protien synthesis, and cell division
DNA nucleotide consists of...
1 deoxiribose sugar
1 phosphate group
1 (of the 4) nitrogen bases
DNA nitrogen base pairs
A - T (adenine-thymine)
C - G (cytosine-guanine)
DNA nitrogen base PURINES
A and G
(adenine and guanine)
larger in size
DNA nitrogen base PYRIMIDINES
T and C
(thymine and cytosine)
smaller in size
occurs in DNA; set of 3 nucleotides; order is important for nitrogen bases
genetic code
order of nitrogeneous bases in DNA triplets
DNA segment that carries info for building ONE protein
steps of DNA replication
-happens during interphase
-DNA helix uncoils and unzips in half
-each old strand=template for new strand
-new DNA nucleotide added
-DNA polyperase glues new nucleotides together
-2 identical daughter cells result
RNA structure
one single strand of nucleotides
RNA location
starts in nucleus, travels through cytoplasm to RIBOSOMES
RNA function
help DNA with protein synthesis
RNA nucleotide consists of...
1 ribose sugar
1 phosphate group
1 (of the four) nitrogen bases
RNA nitrogen base pairs
A - U (adenine-uracil)
C - G (cytosine-guanine)
2 main steps of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
step 1 - transcription
step 2 - translation
step one of protein synthesis;
when mRNA copies genetic code from DNA
and mRNA carries code to ribosomes!!
step two of protein synthesis;
tRNA located in the ribosomes
tRNA translates the message that mRNA brought
tRNA uses message to assemble AMINO ACID SEQUENCE
makes a polypeptide protien!!!
one group of 3 nitrogen bases from mRNA nucleotides
one group of 3 nitrogen bases from tRNA nucleotides