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-long-term relocation of an individual, household, group to a new location outside the community of origin
-a purposeful movement involving change of permanent residence
--involves movement, diffusion, distribution, and patterns
-movement from a source to a destination without a return destination

spatial process

-migration is a good example of this

push factors

unfavorable characteristics of a locale that contribute to dissatisfication of its residents and impel their emigration
--ex. widespread unemployment; poverty; discrimination; political unrest; war; famine arid/or drought; land shortage; overpopulation

pull factors

-characteristics of locale that act as attractive forces, drawing migrants from other places
--ex. employment opportunities; political and/or personal freedoms (speech; religion, right to vote, etc.); land; amenities (e.g. retirement)
-many people move based on excessively positive images and expectations (not always accurate)


-most people migrate for this type of reason
-in order to search for better-paying jobs
-to find new jobs/employment
-to escape poverty/low standards of living

catalysts of migration

-economic conditions
--poverty (push factors)
--perceived opportunities in destinations (pull factors)
-technological advances
--modern transportation makes migration easier
--allows people to migrate where jobs are available
-armed conflict + civil war
--three million people drive fro their homes in former Yugoslavia
--Civil war in Rwanda (Hutu and Tutsis)
-Political circumstances
--oppressive regimes
--Vietnam's "boat people"
-environmental conditions
--Potato Famine in Ireland (1840s)
--major earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes (Gulf Coast of U.S. with Hurricane Katrina--2005)
-Culture and Tradition
--Muslims migrated from India when it was partitioned in 1948

voluntary migration

-occurs when people choose to migrate

net migration

-number of migrants going leaving the area minus those returning to source (origin)

forced migration

-a.k.a. involuntary migration
--Transatlatnic Slave Trade: largest number of slaves brought to plantations in Caribbean and eastern South America
--convicts shipped from Britain to Australia beginning in 1788

activity space

-great majority of people have daily routine that takes them through sequence of short moves called this
-technology greatly expanded this, particularly in wealthier, more developed countries

United States of America

world's most mobile society

cyclic movement

-movement that has a closed route
-ex. daily classes, job
--commuting, seasonal (migrating south to north with seasons), nomadism

periodic movement

best illustrated w/ examples
-college attendance, armed services
-temporary, knowledge of person migrating that it's temporary


(1834-1913) British sociologist
-concluded most move short distances and that frequency of moves declines with distance (distance decay)
-migrants do not represent cross section of populace from which they come (migrants are not like average population from which they come)
-latter of two "laws" intro. role of personal attributes and attitudes of migrants: age, sex, education, economic status
-conclusion that young adult males are dominant in economically pushed international movement is less valid today than when first proposed
-in reality, women & girls now comprise between 40-60% of all international migrants worldwide

Laws of Migration

-most migrants only go a short distance
-longer distance migration favors big city destination
-most migration proceeds step-by-step
-most migration proceeds step-by-step
-most migration is rural to urban
-each migration flow produces a counterflow
-most migrants are adults; families less likely to make international moves
-most international migrants = young males

brain drain

-emmigration of large number of "smart" population of a country
--affects India

chain migration

-process by which people are given preference for migrating to another country b/c a relative was previously admitted
-Asians are known to be most effective users of it

interregional migration

people moving or being moved from one geographic realm (region) to another
-reasons: changes in life course (marriage; divorces; having children); changes in career course (promotions; transfers); changes of residence associated with individual personality

internal migration

in U.S., these have carried center of country's population WESTWARD and SOUTHWARD
-example relating to U.S.
--African-Americans moved northward during and after WWI
-most migrants came from rural areas
-was perception that economic opportunities were becoming available in growing cities of the South

external migration

-flow of jewish immigrants to Israel
--650,000 Jewish residents added to what was then palestine between 1900 and 1948
-German migration after WWII
-From Mexico to U.S.

international refugee

-crossed one or more international borders and are encamped in a country other than their own

intranational refugee

-abandoned their homes but not their homeland

refugee identification

-most move w/o any more tangible property than they can carry or transport with them
-most make first "step" on foot, bicycle, wagon, or open boat
-move w/o official documents that accompany channeled migration

regions of dislocation

-sub-Saharan Africa
-North Africa and Southwest Asia
-South Asia
-Southeast Asia

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