Biology For Stem Majors Unit 1

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Terms in this set (99)
Ionic bondChemical bond that forms between ions with opposite chargesIsotopeone or more forms of an element that have different numbers of neutronsMass numbertotal number of protons and neutrons in an atomMoleculetwo or more atoms chemically bonded togetherNeutronuncharged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amunonpolar covalent bondtype of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between thempolarcovalent bondtype of covalent bond that forms as a result of unequal sharing of electrons, resulting in the creation of slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the moleculeProtonPositively charged particle that resides in the nucleus of an atom; has a mass of one amuAcidMolecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solutionBaseMolecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solutionBufferSubstance that prevents a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ionsCappilary actionoccurs because water molecules are attracted to charges of the inner surfaces of narrow tubular structures such as glass tubes, drawing the water molecules to the sides of the tubesCohesionIntermolecular forces between water molecules causes by the polar nature of water; responsible for surface tensionEvaporationSeparation of individual molecules from the surface of a body of water, leaves of a plant, or the skin of an organismHydrophilicDescribes ions or polar molecules that interact well with other polar molecules such as waterHydrophobicDescribes uncharged non-polar molecules that do not interact well with polar molecules such as waterpH scaleScale ranging from zero to 14 that is inversely proportional to the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solutionSolventSubstance capable of dissolving another substanceSurface tensionTension at the surface of a body of liquid that prevents the molecules from separating; created by the attractive cohesive forces between the molecules of the liquidBiologyThe study of living organismsScienceKnowledge that covers general truths or the operation of general laws; "A way of knowing"HypothesisSuggested explanation for an event which can be testedTheoryA tested and confirmed explanation for observations or phenomenaInductive ReasoningForm of logical thinking that uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusionDeductive ReasoningForm of logical thinking that uses a general principle or law to forecast specific resultsDescriptive-based scienceusually inductive, aims to observe, explore, and discoverHypothesis-based scienceusually deductive, begins with a specific question or problem and potential answer or solution that can be testedVariableany part of the experiment that can vary or change during the experimentControl GroupContains every feature of the experiment except the manipulated variableExperimental groupContains every feature of the experiment including the manipulated variableControlled variableA variable that could influence the outcome of the experiment that is kept the same between the experimental and control groupIndependent variableThe variable of interest in the experimentDependent variableTypically the variable that is begin measured in the experimentAtomsmallest and most fundamental unit of matterBiospherecollection of all the ecosystems on EarthCellsmallest fundamental unit of a structure and function in living thingsCommunityA set of different species populations inhabiting a particular areaEcosystemAll the species in a particular area together with the abiotic environmentBiomeSimilar ecosystems combined which form a major habitatHomeostasisAbility of an organism to maintain constant internal conditionsMacromoleculeLarge molecule, typically formed by the joining of smaller moleculesMoleculeChemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bondsOrganCollection of related tissues grouped together performing a common functionOrgan systemLevel of organization that consists of functionally related interacting organsOrganelleSmall structures that exist within cells and carry out cellular functionsOrganismIndividual living entityPopulationAll of the individuals of the same species living within a specific areaTissueGroup of similar cells carrying out related functionsFunctional GroupGroups of atoms that provides or imparts a specific function to a carbon skeletonIsomerMolecules that differ from one another even though they share the same chemical formulaOrganic MoleculesAny molecule containing carbon and hydrogenBiological macromoleculeLarge molecule necessary for life that is built from smaller organic componentsDehydration SynthesisReaction that links monomer molecules together, releasing a molecule of water for each bond formedHydrolysisReaction causes breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules with the utilization of waterMonomerSmallest unit of larger molecules called polymersPolymerChain of monomer residues that is linked by covalent bondsCarbohydratebiological macromolecule in which the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1CellulosePolysaccharide that makes up the cell wall of plants; provides structural support to the cellChitinType of carbohydrate that forms the outer skeleton of all arthropods that include crustaceans and insects; it also forms the cell walls of fungiGlycogenStorage carbohydrate in animalsMonosaccharidessingle unit or monomer of carbohydratesPolysaccharidesLong chain of monosaccharides; may be branched or unbranchedStarchStorage carbohydrate in plantsLipidMacromolecule that is nonpolar and insoluble in waterPhospholipidMajor constituent of the membranes; composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate-containing group attached to a glycerol backboneSaturated Fatty AcidLong-chain of hydrocarbon with single covalent bonds in the carbon chain; the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton is maximizedSteriodType of lipid composed of four fused hydrocarbon ringsTriglyceridesfat molecule; consists of three fatty acids linked to a glycerol moleculeunsaturated fatty acidlong-chain hydrocarbon that has one or more double bonds in the hydrocarbon chainWaxLipid that serves as a protective coating on some feathers, aquatic mammal fur, and leavesalpha helix structuretype of secondary structure of proteins; folded into a helix shape with hydrogen bonds stabilizing the structureAmino Acidmonomer of a proteinBeta Pleated SheetsSecondary structure found in proteins in which "pleats" are formed by hydrogen bondingDenaturationLoss of shape in a protein as a result of changes in temperature, pH, or exposure to chemicalsEnzymeCatalyst in a biochemical reactionPeptide BondBond formed between two amino acids by a dehydration reactionPolypeptideLong chain of amino acids linked by peptide bondsPrimary structureLinear sequence of amino acids in a proteinQuaternary StructureAssociation of discrete polypeptide subunits in a proteintertiary structureThree-dimensional conformation of a proteindeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)double-helical molecule that carries the hereditary information of the cellNucleic AcidBiological macromolecule that carries the genetic blueprint of a cell and carries instructions for the function of the cellPurineType of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA; Adenine & guanineRNASingle-stranded molecule that is involved in protein synthesisGlycosidic bondbond formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction between two monosaccharidesSecondary structureRegular structure formed by proteins by intramolecular hydrogen bondingNucleotideMonomer of nucleic acids; contains a pentose sugar, one or more phosphate groups, and a nitrogenous basepolynucleotideLong chain of nucleotidesPyrimidineType of nitrogenous base in DNA and RNA' Cytosine, thymine, and uracil