Unit 1- Renaissance (AP European History)

Historically, what period did the Renaissance follow?
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Explain the role of trade in the development of the Renaissance in Italy.Classical texts migrated to Europe through trade routes and brought new ideas.What types of products allowed the Italian merchants to generate wealth?Renaissance developed in city-states focused on trade in wool, spices, and luxury items.What Italian city became the new banking city of Europe?FlorenceWhat Italian family dominated the Italian banking industry?The Medici familyWhat is the name of Machiavelli's book?The princeWhat is the focus of Machiavelli's book?Acquisition, maintenance, and expansion of political power.What do the following phrases mean?"By any means necessary.""The end justifies the means."Situation dictates proper action of the ruler. Whatever actions that allow the ruler to maintain power.What role does morality play in Machiavelli's philosophy?Men are evil without any possibility of redemption.According to Machiavelli, what is the status of man's human nature?Humans are selfish and look out for their own interests.What subjects make up the humanities and the liberal arts?Mathematics, astronomy (science), music, historyWho is considered the "father of Italian humanism"?PetrarchWho was the biggest influence on Petrarch?CiceroWhat two classical civilizations did humanists study?Classical Greek and LatinWhat is civic humanism?Active, engaged, citizens who participates in the community.According to civic humanists what should humanist scholars do?Devote intellectual talents to working for the state (government) two improve the community.What was the study of the liberal arts intended to create?To produce humans who followed a path of virtue and wisdom and also who possessed the skills to persuade others to take this path as a humanist.What did Vittorino add to the traditional study of the liberal arts?Physical educationWhat did humanist scholars/historians emphasize as the cause of human events?HumansWhat did Guicciardini use to analyze historical and political events?Political and military history via personal examples and documentary sources (evidence)What is Johannes Guttenberg given credit for inventing?Printing pressWhat was the first book printed using movable metal type?Gutenberg bibleWhat was the impact of the printing press?It spread information quickly and accurately. Books made "the same"- everyone read same version (cheaper/more available)What is a patron of the arts?Financial supporters who supports the work of artists.What social class patronized the arts in the Early Renaissance?Kings/wealthy social classWhat city was the cultural epicenter of the Early Renaissance period?FlorenceWhat is the link between trade and art?Trade makes money for the elite urban upper class, which they spend on art (Patron of the arts).What city was the cultural epicenter of the High Renaissance period?RomeWho became major patrons of the arts in the High Renaissance period?PopesIdentify and define Balance in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:-Focal point and center of interest -Symmetry/equal weight on either side of paintingIdentify and define Linear perspective in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:-Creating a sense of depth in painting - Use mathematics - geometric and parallel perspective using a vanishing pointIdentify and define Realism in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:-life like humans and animals - strong use of accurate anatomy - realistic human emotions given to figures based on the event -use of light and shadow/shading to depict anatomy - realistic landscapesIdentify and define Humanism in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:- Application of knowledge from the study of the humanities to the artwork - Understanding human anatomy, society, and human nature -study of classical artists and classical artistic stylesIdentify and define Religion in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:- Christian and biblical stories - Religious message downplayed in favor of the human story - Humanization of the divineIdentify and define Greece and Rome in the six characteristics of Renaissance art:- Nude human figures - Free standing sculptures "walk around" - Architecture created to a human scale using Greco-Roman architectural characteristics. - Greek and roman mythological characters and stories depicted in artworkGhibertiThe Sacrifice of Isaac; the doors of Florentine baptisteryMasaccioThe Expulsion; the Tribute MoneyDonatelloThe DavidLeonardo da VinciThe Vitruvian Man; the Last Supper; the Mona LisaRaphaelThe School of AthensMichelangeloThe Pietas; the David, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; the Last Judgment;Jan van EyckGiovanni Arnolfini and His BrideAlbrecht DurerSelf PortraitPeter Bruegel the ElderThe Peasant Wedding; the HarvestersWhat were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of the early Renaissance?Balanced, proportion, order. Focused on the human form as beauty-anatomy and motionWhat were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of the high Renaissance?Linear perspective, light/shadow, human form. Oil paint, painting nature and people in their ideal form.How did the style of the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian artists?Emphasis on extreme physical detail to recreate visual reality and emotional intensity of religious feeling. Paintings of everyday scenes.What were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of Mannerism?Deliberate break from classical rules of renaissance art. Distortion, strong sense of emotion and color to portray emotion.What were some of the distinctive characteristics of the art of Baroque?Combined classical ideals of renaissance art with the religious revival of the catholic faith. Emotion movement, power, action, use of nude, strong use of light and shadow. Favored by kings.How did Classicism influence the Italian Renaissance?Created their own style of art, philosophy and scientific inquiry.