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acid-fast stain

a differential stain....
positive (pink) - mycobacterium pheli
negative (blue/purple) - E. coli

mycolic acid

wax like lipid contained by acid-fast staining which renders cell wall impermeable to most stains

ziehl-neelsen procedure

smear is flooded with carbonfuchsin ( a dark red dye containing 5% phenol)
has a high affinity for a chemical component of the bacterial cell
smear is heated to facilitate pentration of the stain into the bacteria

kinyoun modification

called a cold stain, the concentration of phenol and carbolfuschsin are increased so heating isnt necessary

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