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Chapters 8 - 10

Eating Habits

Appetite decreases between age 2 and 6 because, compared with infants, young children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight. This is especially true for children today, who play outdoors less than their parents or grandparents dod. However, instead of appreciating this natural change in appetite, many parents fret, threaten, and cajole their children into eating more than they should. ("Eat all your dinner and you can have ice cream.")

Benefits of Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex

Frontal Lobe shows the most prolonged period of postnatal development of any region of the human brain. dentrite density and myelination increase throught childhood and adolescence. Benefits are:
* sleep becomes more regular
* emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli
* temper tantrums subside
* uncontrollable laughter and tears become less common


The tendency to persevere in or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.

Impulsiveness and Perseveration

Are opposite behaviors with the same underlying cause: immaturity of the prefrontal cortex.


acting on a desire without considering the result(s)

Theory theory

the idea that children construct a theory to attempt to explain everything they see and hear

Theory of Mind

a person's theory of what other people might be thinking. in order to have this, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thiking the same thoughts that they themselves are. That realization is a seldom possible before age 4

Vocabulary Explosion

In childhood, new words are added rapidly. The average child knows about 500 words at age 2 and more than 10,000 words at age 6. The naming explosion becomes more general as verbs, adj, adv,and conjunctions are added to the thousands of nouns mastered during early childhood.
Language potential is greater than spoken vocabulary. Given proper circumstances every normal child could become fluently bilingual.

Child Centered Programs

teachers provide a variety of activities from which children select and much learning takes place through play. developmental programs. use Piaget inspired model that allows children to discover ideas at their own pace. Space and stuff are arranged to allow for self paced exploration.

Intrinsic Motivation

a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent

Extrinsic Motivation

a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.


a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are connected to emotional regulation, in that children become motivated to c ontroll their emotions, or at least the expression of them.

Seeking emotional balance

Children who have SOME, but not too much, shame, guilt, and other emotions are considered emotionally healthy. At every age, developmentalists seek to prevent or treal PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, an illness or disorder of the mind. Although the symtoms and diagnosis are influenced by culture, lack of emotional regulation is universally accepted as an early sign of psychopathology in a child.

Baumrind's three patterns of parenting

* Authoritarian
* Authoritative
* Permissive
* (Neglectful/Uninvolved)

Authoritarian parenting

an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication

Permissive Parenting

an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control

Authoritative Parenting

an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible

Neglectful Uninvolved Parenting

(sometimes mistaken for permissive parenting, but not same) an approach to child rearing in which parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in thier lives.


any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
* Instrumental Aggression
* Reactive Aggression
* Relational Aggression
* Bullying Aggression

Instrumental Aggression

hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has

Reactive Aggression

an impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental actions, verbal or physical

Relational Aggression

Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming that social connection between the victim and others.

Bullying Aggression

unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves

Parental Discipline

* Physical Punishment
* Psychological Control
* Social Punishment

Physical Punishment

to reduce the frequency of a target behaivor by making brief and noninjurious contact with the skin contingent on the target behavior/ , arouses feelings of frustration and offers model of aggression. whatever your punishment, be consistent and make sure not to give in. this can not be the only motivation for kids to behave. use minimal force to get child to comply. /, Problems:
Models aggressive behavior - and is associated with increased aggressiveness in kid
Tends to work primarily if child thinks they will be caught if they disobey
Does not reinforce desired behavior
May promote fear or running away

Psychological Control

A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.

Social Punishment

* TimeOut is most often used in NAmerica.
* Induction

time out

a disciplinary technique in which a child is seperated from other people for a specified time. Generally one minute per year of age is often suggested.


parent talks to a child to get the child to understand why the behavior was wrong.

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