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APUSH Period 2
Terms in this set (80)
What were the first three "Outposts" of the Europeans in the Americas?
The Spanish's Santa Fe, The French's Quebec, and the English's Jamestown, Virginia.
What was the Protestant Reformation?
A movement intended to bring religious reforms of the Roman Catholic Church.
What was a result of the Protestant Reformation?
When Protestant Elizabeth ascended the throne, England's ties with the Spanish severed because the Spanish were Roman Catholic and did not approve of Protestantism. It also gave birth to Puritans.
Who was Sir Francis Drake?
An English "sea dog" who pillaged Spanish ships for gold
What was Roanoke Island?
An island off the coast of Virginia: The settlers there mysteriously vanished.
What was the Spanish Armada?
A fleet sent by Spain in 1588 to invade England, funded by the new riches of the Americas; it was defeated
What were some effects of the defeat of the Spanish Armada?
1. It sowed the seeds of Spain's own decline
2. It ensured England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic
3. It began newfound English confidence and Nationalism much resembling the Spanish in the past
What is primogeniture?
When the oldest son inherits landed estates.
What is a joint-stock company?
A business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits
What was the Virginia Company?
A company formed by a group of wealthy Englishmen set to settle a colony and business in the New World.
What is the Charter?
It was a document that guaranteed oversea settlers that they would enjoy the same rights as if they were back home in England.
What is Jamestown?
The first permanent English settlement in North America
Why were the early years of Jamestown so terrible?
First of all many died on the voyage there, secondly many died of disease, malnutrition, and starvation. They were too focused on finding gold not not as focused on establishing themselves permanently.
Who was Captain John Smith?
An important person in American History: He got Virginian settlers into shape with the rule "He who shall not work shall not eat", and was able to make a shaky treaty with chieftain Powhatan, whose daughter Pocahontas acted as an intermediary.
Who was Lord De La Warr?
A harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish tactics" against the Indians.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
It was declared by Lord De La Warr when he took over Jamestown; the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe (first interracial union in Virginia) ended the war in 1614.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
How did treatment of the Natives differ between the Spanish and the English?
The Spanish were cruel to the Natives indeed, but also assimilated them into their society and tried hard to convert them to Christianity. In contrast, the English saw no value in the Natives and received them as an obstacle in the way of more land.
How did these new colonies change the lives of Native Americans during this period?
1. Horses changed many Natives' lifestyles, turning them into nomadic hunter-warriors.
2. Diseases ended up wiping out entire tribes, sometimes forcing them to combine.
3. European tech and trade led to Indian v. Indian competition.
4. Natives farther inland gained more power due to having more time, space, and numbers during the European intrusion.
What was the House of Burgesses?
The first legislative assembly in the American colonies.
What was the Act of Toleration?
Maryland law that forbade religious persecution, but did not extend to Jews or atheists.
What were some effects of Tobacco on Virginia?
1. It gave Virginia economic value due to the sky-high demand of it in Europe.
2. It ruined soil.
3. It gave birth to what would become plantations and African slavery in the Early America.
4. It led to James I making Virginia a royal colony, which meant it was under his direct control and no longer under the control of the Virginia company.
Why were there so many Catholics in Maryland?
Because Lord Baltimore, who founded the colony, was Catholic and drafted the Act of Toleration, making Maryland a haven for Catholics.
What was the Barbados Slave Code?
Denied the most fundamental rights to slaves, gave masters virtually complete control over them, and adopted in Carolina in 1696
What were the importance of the Carolinas during this period?
They were very important. After Charles II adopted the crown, he invested much so that the Carolinas could harvest exotic crops and deliver them to Europe. Rice became the main crop, the Carolinas became new and powerful colonies.
What are "Squatters"?
People who claim land by establishing a house and live on land which no one claimed before.
What effect did Squatters have on the Carolinas?
It led to the separation of North Carolina and South Carolina due to the spirit of resistance to authority from the Squatters.
What was the Tuscarora War?
When North Carolina defeated the Tuscarora Indians, selling them into slavery and forcing them to wander North for the protection of the Iroquois.
Who were the Yamasee Indians?
Indians defeated and dispersed by the South Carolinians four years after the Tuscarora War.
Why was Georgia founded?
To be a buffer against Spanish Florida and French Lousiana for the Carolinas.
What were the Plantation Colonies?
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. They all permitted some religious toleration and exported commercially agricultural products. These colonies used up so much soil that they pushed setters further mainland.
What was the Iroquois Confederacy?
Founded around 1451, the Iroquois Confederacy was a loose political alliance of five Indian nations. Impressed by the wisdom of this government, Europeans referred to them as the "Romans of the New World." The confederacy continued until it was finally destroyed during the American Revolution.
Who was Martin Luther?
German monk and professor of theology who began the Protestant Revolution and eventually began the Lutheran Church.
What is Calvinism?
A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.
What is Predestination?
The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation thought up by John Calvin.
What is conversion?
A Calvanist ideal where God would reveal himself to the elect (those chosen to go to heaven) and reveal their heavenly destiny. Afterward they were expected to lead sanctified lives.
What is a Puritan?
Calvinists who sought to purify catholicism from the church of England, DID NOT want to break away from it.
What were the Separatists?
Radical Puritans who wanted to BREAK AWAY from the English church and make their own congregations.
Why did King James I threaten to drive out Separatists?
Because he figured if people could defy him as a spiritual leader they might defy him as their political leader.
How did the Protestant Reformation produce Puritanism?
The fire in the bellies of these Protestants burned so hotly against the Catholic church that they sought to "purify" the English church because of the slow progress of removing Catholics from England.
Why did the Pilgrims come to America?
To avoid religious persecution
Who was Captain Myles Standish?
Prominent among the non-belongers of the Mayflower who came to Plymouth Bay; an Indian fighter and negotiator
What was the Mayflower Compact?
Document signed by men on the Mayflower, they agreed to work together and make decisions together, led to self-government in the colonies
Who was William Bradford?
A self-taught scholar who was chosen governor 30 times in Plymouth's annual elections.
Where did the Pilgrims settle and how did they fare?
The Pilgrims settled in Plymouth Rock. They went through difficult times, like the winter of 1620 where the majority of them died but they began to figure it out and became a small, not super important colony.
What was the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
English colony in Massachusetts settled by Puritans seeking religious freedom. It was the largest colonizing effort ever seen before from English.
What was the Great English Migration?
When seventy thousand refugees left England, more following behind them.
Who was John Winthrop?
The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Said, "We shall be as a city on a hill".
Who was John Cotton?
Went to Massachusetts to avoid persecution, devoted learning to defend the government's duty to enforce religious rules (prayed/preached 6hrs a day)
What factor decided the way the Bay Colony functioned?
Religion. If you were not Puritan, you were "damned" and enjoyed less rights.
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
A woman who was kicked out of colonial Massachusetts and due to her belief of antinomianism.
What is antinomianism?
God has already predetermined the fate of man, so the saved do not need to obey the law of either God or man in order to remain in salvation.
Who was Roger Williams?
He was an extreme Separatist who was banished from Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island based on religious freedom, even for Catholics and Jews.
What were the Fundamental Orders?
A modern constitution which established a regime democratically controlled by the "substantial" citizens
Who was Squanto?
A native amercian in the Wampanoag tribe who could speak English and helped the Wampanoag befriend the Pilgrims, leading to the first Thanksgiving.
What was the Pequot War?
A war between the English settlers and the Pequot tribe that ended with the massacre at Mystic River. The English settlers used extreme violence and native american allies to virtually eliminate the Pequot nation.
Who was Metacom (King Philip)?
Native American who was partially successful in war against the colonies due to being able to forge an alliance with his fellow native neighbors in New England until his capture and execution.
What was King Philip's War?
The last major attempt by the natives to clear the settlers out, leading to their ultimate demise.
What was the New England Confederation?
A defensive organization to protect against Indians, French, Dutch, etc.
What was the English Civil War?
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government. This left colonies to their own resources.
What was a result of the English leaving the colonies to their own devices?
They began to develop an independent mind of their own. After Charles II came into power, he developed sanctions to punish the independent minded Massachusetts and even took away its charter.
What was the Dominion of New England?
When James II tried to merge all the colonies into one colony with one person in charge.
What were the English Navigation Laws?
Laws made to kill the independency of New England by tying trade closer to England and throttling trade with other countries.
Who was Sir Edmund Andros and what did he do?
He was an English military man who was a strict enforcer of British law and was so hated that he planted seeds of rebellion in the colonists. After William III became king he was shipped back to England by the colonists.
What was the Glorious Revolution?
The bloodless overthrow of the English king James II and his replacement by William III and Mary II.
What was salutary neglect?
British policy of allowing the colonies to handle their own affairs.
What was a result of Charles II messing with colonial affairs?
They began to feel separate from England and in fact despised their ways.
What was the Dutch East India Company?
A trading company established by the Netherlands in 1602 to protect and expand its trade in Asia.
Who was Henry Hudson and what did he do?
He was an english explorer that sailed up the hudson river and led the Dutch to the creation of New Netherland and purchase of Manhattan Island form the Indians (who didn't really "own" it).
What were patroonships?
Vast estates of land that were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
What was the result of the freedom of the Netherlands on America?
It led to the creation of New Netherland (later New York) and the purchase of Manhattan Island, all instigated by the newfound Dutch.
(For fun) where does the name Wall Street come from?
The wall erected by the people of Manhattan Island as a defense measure against the raging Indians.
What happened to New Sweden?
It was conquered by the Dutch after intruding on the Delaware. This led to a Swedish influence on Delaware.
How did New Netherland become New York?
Problems between the Dutch and the English became worse; and in 1664 the English took over New Amsterdam when the King gave it to his brother (though it was not his to give), who was the Duke of York.
Who are the Quakers?
The Quakers, or society of friends were a religious group that opposed the English church and were much hated by Puritans. They saw themselves as all children in God's eyes, so they spoke when moved and were very passive in their teachings.
Who was William Penn?
Created the colony of Pennsylvania for the Quakers escaping religious persecution. He attracted a heavy number of immigrants.
Why did some Indian tribes migrate to Pennsylvania?
Because Indian-White relations were the greatest any English colony had ever seen: they were at times even employed as baby-sitters. But it was not to last...
What were "Blue laws"?
A law prohibiting certain activities, such as shopping, on a Sunday.
Why did Pennsylvania's population/power soar?
Penn's recruitment program, generous land policy and good relations with Natives, popular vote and religious toleration led to a constant flow of immigrants, thus giant growth and power.
What were some characteristics of the Middle Colonies?
1. They had desirable, fertile land
2. There were profitable rivers
3. More ethnically diverse
4. Unusually high degree of religious toleration and democratic control
5. Desirable land was more easily acquired
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