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72 terms

Developmental Psychology Vocabulary

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developmental psychology
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout a life span
zygote
the fertilized egg
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking, noticeable symptoms include facial mis-proportions
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
sensorimotor stage
according to Piaget, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
according to Piaget, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
according to Piaget, the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the form of object
egocentrism
according to Piaget, the preoperational child's difficulty in taking another's point of view
concrete operational stage
according to Piget, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
according to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attatchments during a critical period very early in life
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
menarche
the first menstrual period
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes in a woman's experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
age of viability
age a baby can live outside of the mother.
22 weeks
10 months
gestation period
37-42 weeks
term birth range
breach birth
type of birth where the baby comes out feet first
germinal stage
stage of development from conception - 2 weeks.
cells divide
embryonic stage
stage of development from 2 weeks to 8 weeks where the vital organisms/system forms. most important stage.
fetal stage
stage of development from 8 weeks till birth
bubinsky's reflex
reflex where if you touch a baby's foot the toe bends
APGAR Test
test given to a new born baby after 1 and 5 minutes.
each letter worth 2 points.
a - activity
p - pulse
g - grimace (reflexes)
a - appearance
r - respiration
jaundice
a yellowish appearance in new born babies that usually is the result of kidney failure
socialization
process by which children learn the behaviors, attitudes, and expectations required of them by their society and culture
preconventional stage
Kohlberg's moral development stage where your behavior is influenced by rewards and punishments
conventional stage
Kohlberg's moral development stage where your behavior is influence by peer pressure/society
postconventional stage
Kohlberg's moral development stage where your behavior is influenced by your own ethics
Kohlberg
person who studied moral development
Marcia
person who studied identity states
identity foreclosure
identity state where you accept your identity and the values that were given in childhood.
*not given a chance to explore alternatives
* self-concept defined by other people
identity diffusion
identity state where you have no clear idea of your own identity and you are NOT trying to find one
*outcome = lack of self-identity and no commitment to values or goals
moratorium
identity stage where you are trying to achieve identity through experimentation and trial and error
identity achievement
identity state where you have gone through an identity crisis and have come out with a well defined self-concept. you are committed to a set of personal values and goals.
erikson
person who studied social development
trust vs. mistrust
stage from infancy - 1 year where infants develop a basic sense of trust
autonomy vs. shame & doubt
stage through toddlerhood (1-2 years) where toddles learn to exercise will and do things for themselves or they will doubt their abilities
initiative vs. guilt
stage trough preschool (3-5 years) where preschoolers lean to start tasks and carry out plans or they will feel guilty about efforts to be independent
competence vs. inferiority
stage through elementary school (6-puberty) where children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or they feel inferior
identity vs. role confusion
stage through adolescence where teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are
intimacy vs. isolation
stage through young adulthood (20-early 40s) where young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated.
generavity vs. stagnation
stage through middle adulthood (40s-60s) where the middle-aged discover a sense of contribution to the world usually through family and jobs or else they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity vs. despair
stage through late adulthood (60+) where when reflecting upon his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or regret
authoritarian
parenting style where the parents are cruel and military like and do not explain why disciplining
permissive
parenting style where the parents are very attached to their kids
authoritative
ideal parenting style happy medium between permissive and authoritarian
harry harlow
person who studied contact comfort with the rhesus monkey experiment
bolby
researched emotional ties of attachment
ainsworth
bolby's student who experimented with babies and strange situations
secure
type of baby where the baby is calmed down by re-contact
avoidant
type of baby where the baby does not engage in a reunion with its mother
anxious/ambivalent
type of baby where after re-contact that baby is anxious and fears for further absence
Kubler-Ross
studied the stages of dying/grieving
1. denial
2. anger
3. bargaining
4. depression - people should grieve as long as needed
5. acceptance - people who are religious tend go reach this stage faster
telegraphic
uttering 2 words of speech
parentese
language where parents talk to their kids
lift neck
before babies can walk this is the first thing they need to learn
7-10
what is determined as a "good score" for the apgar test
10 months
gestation period