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136 terms

A and P Major Exam 1

STUDY
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Tissue
Collections of specialized cells and products, perform limited number of functions
Epithelial Tissue
tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs
Connective Tissue
Bone, Tendon, Ligament, Cartilage, provide support, fill in spaces, store energy
Muscle Tissue
skeletal, cardiac, smooth, allows movement
Neural Tissue
conducts electrical impulses, carries information
Apical Surface
Exposed surface of epithelia
Functions of Epithelia
Provide protection, control permeability, provides sensation, produce secretions
Exocrine Secretions
To surface of epithelium
Endocrine Secretions
Release into surrounding tissue fluid and blood
Intracellular Connections
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM's), transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton filaments, intracellular cement (protein, and polysacharide mixture)
Tight Junction
Bilayer's connected by interlocking proteins, Adhesion belt (near tight junctions, encircle cells binding them to neighbors, connect to cytoskeleton. PREVENT PASSAGE OF WATER AND SOLUTES
Gap Junctions
Allow communication,(embedded membrane proteins with holes), connexons allow small molecules to pass through them. Smooth and cardiac muscle tissue
Desmosome
Abundant between cells in superficial layers of skin. Intracellular cement, CAM's, proteins connect with intermediate filaments, spot desmosomes, cell to cell, semidesmosomes, cell to basement membrane
Microvilli
Active and passive transport of molecules, increases surface area
Cillia
Beat in coordiated fashion, move materials across a surface
Basement Membrane
connects epithelia to underlying tissue, no cells, hemidesmosomes connect epithelia, resists distortion, acts as barrier
Simple Epithelium
Single layer of cells covering basement membrane
Stratified Epithelium
several layers of cells, not all connected to basement membrane, more protection. Surface of skin, lining of mouth
Squamous Epithelium
Thin, flat cell
Cuboidal
Hexagonal boxes, neat rows
Columnar
Hexagonal, but taller and thinner, rectangles, nuclei crowded close to basement membrane
Merocrine Secretion
Released by secretory vesicles by exocytosis, mucus
Apocrine Secretion
top of cell sheds, full of vesicles, cell regrows after break
Holocrine Secretion
Entire Cell becomes packed with secretions and bursts, cell dies
Matrix
Surrounds cells, contains ground substance and extracellular protein fibers
Connective Tissue Proper
Dense, Loose, skin, fatty tissue, tendons, ligaments. Syrupy ground substance.
Fluid Connective Tissues
Blood, Lymph. watery ground substance.
Supporting Connective Tissues
cartilage, bone. Dense ground substance, fibrous matrix of bone
Fibroblast
Produce connective tissue fibers and ground substance. Permanent residence, most abundant cells.
Macrophage
Phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Release chemicals mobilizing immune system. Throughout matrix. Fixed macrophages released during infection.
Fat Cells
Adipocyte, permanent resident, large droplet of lipid, nucleus pushed to side.
Stem cells
Respond to local injury, divide to produce daughter cells, differentiate into fibroblast, macrophages, and other cells
Mast Cells
released after injury or infection, cells rupture, packed with cytoplasm with vesicles packed with histamine and heprin (dilute blood)
Antibody producing cells
produces antibodies that destroy invading micro-organisms or foreign substances
Collagen Fibers
long, straight, unbranched, strong flexible
Elastic Fibers
Contain elastin (protein), branched and wavy, stretchy
Reticular Fibers
Honeycomb shape, thinner than collagen
Cartilage
Avascular, Matrix, Chondrocytes
Chondrocyte
Live in Lacunae, obtain nutrients, eliminate waste via diffusion, limited repair possibilities
Perichondrium
covers and separates structures of cartilage from surrounding tissues, inner cellular layer, fibrous layer
Hyaline Cartilage
Most common, closely packed collagen fibers, connects ribs to sternum, supports trachea, covers bone surface in joints
Elastic Cartilage
Numerous elastic fibers, flexible. Ear, epiglottis, airway to ear
Fibrous Cartilage
Little ground substance, matrix full of collagen fibers, resist compression, absorb shock, prevent bone to bone contact, knee, vertebrae, between pubic bones
Osteocytes
Cell of bone, sit within lacume (matrix)
Canaliculi
Branching network with bony canals
Periosteum
Covering that surrounds bone, outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer
Mucous Membranes
Lines cavities, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract, lined by simple epithelial
Serous Membranes
Lines sealed internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity, parietal(lines inner surface of cavity, covers outer surface of cavity), and visceral. Simple epithelium supported by loose connective tissue. Minimizes friction.
Pleura
Lines pleural cavities, covers lungs
Peritoneum
lines peritoneal cavity covers surface of enclosed organs, liver, stomach
Pericardium
Lines the pericardial cavity, covers heart
Cutaneous Membrane
skin
Synovial Membrane
Lines fibrous capsule that surrounds freely movable joints, hyaline cartilage separated by synovial fluid. Loose connective tissue.
Skeletal Muscle
voluntary movement, striated voluntary muscle
Cardiac Muscle
in heart, circulates blood, maintains blood pressure
Smooth Muscle
found in walls of blood vessels, digestic, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs
Neural Tissue
Brain and spinal cord, conduct chemical impulses in body,
Neuron
Communicate through electrical events effecting the plasma membrane, longest cell in body, receive and carry information in body. axon- carry dendrite-receive
Neuroglia
Provide physical support for neural tissue, maintains chemical composition, provide nutrients to neurons, defend the tissue from infection
Inflammation
speeds up process of removal of waste products and toxins. mast cells produce histamine and heparin.
Regeneration
fibroblasts rebuild
Major Functions of Integument
Protection, synthesis and storage of nutrients, temp. maintenance, sensory reception, excretion and secretion
Epidermis
stratified epithelium, thick skin- 5 layers, thin skin- 4 layers.
Stratum Germinativum
deepest layer, cells firmly attached by hemidesmosome. Large stem cells, replace cells in upper layers
Melanocytes
synthisize melanin, yellow-brown pigment
Stratum Spinosum
adds to thickness of epithelium, cells may still divide (spiny layer)
Stratum Granulosum
cells no longer divide, begin to produce large amounts of keratin (grainy layer)
Keratin
protein, durable water resistant
Stratum Lucidium
Only thick skin, flattened cells, densely packed with keratin
Stratum Corneum
Outer layer of dermis, 15-30 layers of flattened dead epithelial cells, keratin, connected via desmosomes
Dermis
contains nutrients for the epidermis, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers
Hair Papilla
peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves. Surrounded by epithelial stem cells
Hair Root
portion that anchors hair to the skin
Hair Shaft
Visible part, 3 layers of keratinized cells
Cuticle
surrounded with connective tissue sheath and wall, shingle like layer of cells, hard keratin
Cortex
under cuticle, thick layers of hard keratin
Medulla
core, flexible soft keratin
Sebaceous Glands
Holocrine glands, arrector pilli forces out secretion, sebum-oily lipid secretion
Accessory Structures
Nail, horn, hoof
4 steps in repair to injury
1. mast cells trigger inflammatory response
2. scab formed, clotting, migratory epithelium, macrophages, fibroblasts, granulation tissue
3. scar tissue formed
4. scab sheds, epidermis complete
Skeletal System Functions
supporting weight. stores minerals: phosphorus, calcium. blood cell production (yellow, red). protection. leverage.
osteoblast
immature bone cells
osteoclast
secrete acid and protein digesting enzymes (break down)
osteocyte
mature bone cells
Long bone
Femur, Humerus. Longer than wide
Short Bone
Carpal, tarsal. approx. same length and width
irregular bone
vertebrae
flat bone
parietal bone
lacunae
where the oseocytes sit in the osteon
lamellae
narrow sheets of calcified matrix. osteon rings.
canaliculi
small channels through the matrix. connect lacunae. osetocytes travel through
perforating canal
how osteons communicate. carry blood vessles into bone and marow
spongey bone
no osteons, lamallae form rods, spaces between contain red bone marrow. stresses come from many directions.
Diaphysis
central shaft of bone
Epiphysis
ends of bone
Compact Bone
hard bone, on outside of bones except joints. stresses come from limited range of directions
Red Bone Marrow
...
Periosteum
outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer. attaches fibers and ligaments to bone. bone growth and repair.
Endosteum
cellular layer of periosteum
red bone marrow
red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells arise here. mainly in immature bone.
Endochondral Ossification
1. chondrocytes at center of cartilage enlarge, chondrocytes die as matrix calcifies. 2. newly made osteoblasts cover the cartilage in a thin layer of bone. 3. blood vessels penetrate cartilage, osteoblasts for spongy bone, center is primary center of ossification. 4. bone enlarges, osteoclasts for marrow cavity, new cartilage forms. 5. blood vessels are in epiphysis, are filled with spongy bone, new ossification centers form at ends of bone.
calcitonin
secreted by C cells in thyroid. decreases calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing calcium secretion in kidneys
parathyroid hormone
produced in parathyroid glands. increases calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts, increasing interstitial absorbtion of calcium, decreases calcium excretion in kidneys
open fracture
projects through the skin
transverse fractures
fracture that breaks across through long axis of bone.
spiral fracture
twisting stresses along length of bone
greenstick fractures
occur in young animals
comminuted fractures
shattered bone
simple joints
two bones articulate
compound joints
two or more bones meet
fibrous joint
articulation by fibrous tissue, little or no movement. sutured. skull bones.
cartilaginous joint
articulation united by fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, slightly movable joints. vertebral discs
synovial joint
articulated by synovial joint capsule. freely movable joints.
synarthrosis joint
immovable joint. fibrous or cartilaginous connection. skull bones, teeth.
amphiarthrosis
slightly movable joint
diarthrosis
freely movable joint
Synovial Joint Components
Joint cavity, articular cartilage(hyaline), joint capsule (synovial membrane, fibrous capsule) ligaments, busa (small sac) helps with cushioning
flexion
reduces angle between two bones
extension
increases angle between two bones
hyperextesion
over extended
dorsal and ventral flexion
bending the spine
rotation
movement around the long axis
universal
all movements, shoulder joint
adduction
moving toward median or plane
abduction
moving away from the median plane
gliding joint
two surfaces slide past each other, between carpal bones.
Hing joint
allowing movement at right angles
pivot joint
rotation around longitudinal axis of bone
ellipsodal joint
movement in two planes
saddle joint
articular surface concave in one and convex in the other
ball and socket
universal movement. shoulder bone
wool hair
sheep. wavy, fine
bristles
face hairs, whiskers
guard hairs
outer coat
long hair
horse
tactile hair
stiff sensory hairs