Functions of Epithelia
Provide protection, control permeability, provides sensation, produce secretions
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM's), transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton filaments, intracellular cement (protein, and polysacharide mixture)
Bilayer's connected by interlocking proteins, Adhesion belt (near tight junctions, encircle cells binding them to neighbors, connect to cytoskeleton. PREVENT PASSAGE OF WATER AND SOLUTES
Allow communication,(embedded membrane proteins with holes), connexons allow small molecules to pass through them. Smooth and cardiac muscle tissue
Abundant between cells in superficial layers of skin. Intracellular cement, CAM's, proteins connect with intermediate filaments, spot desmosomes, cell to cell, semidesmosomes, cell to basement membrane
connects epithelia to underlying tissue, no cells, hemidesmosomes connect epithelia, resists distortion, acts as barrier
several layers of cells, not all connected to basement membrane, more protection. Surface of skin, lining of mouth
Connective Tissue Proper
Dense, Loose, skin, fatty tissue, tendons, ligaments. Syrupy ground substance.
Produce connective tissue fibers and ground substance. Permanent residence, most abundant cells.
Phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Release chemicals mobilizing immune system. Throughout matrix. Fixed macrophages released during infection.
Respond to local injury, divide to produce daughter cells, differentiate into fibroblast, macrophages, and other cells
released after injury or infection, cells rupture, packed with cytoplasm with vesicles packed with histamine and heprin (dilute blood)
Antibody producing cells
produces antibodies that destroy invading micro-organisms or foreign substances
Live in Lacunae, obtain nutrients, eliminate waste via diffusion, limited repair possibilities
covers and separates structures of cartilage from surrounding tissues, inner cellular layer, fibrous layer
Most common, closely packed collagen fibers, connects ribs to sternum, supports trachea, covers bone surface in joints
Little ground substance, matrix full of collagen fibers, resist compression, absorb shock, prevent bone to bone contact, knee, vertebrae, between pubic bones
Lines cavities, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract, lined by simple epithelial
Lines sealed internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity, parietal(lines inner surface of cavity, covers outer surface of cavity), and visceral. Simple epithelium supported by loose connective tissue. Minimizes friction.
Lines fibrous capsule that surrounds freely movable joints, hyaline cartilage separated by synovial fluid. Loose connective tissue.
found in walls of blood vessels, digestic, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs
Communicate through electrical events effecting the plasma membrane, longest cell in body, receive and carry information in body. axon- carry dendrite-receive
Provide physical support for neural tissue, maintains chemical composition, provide nutrients to neurons, defend the tissue from infection
speeds up process of removal of waste products and toxins. mast cells produce histamine and heparin.
Major Functions of Integument
Protection, synthesis and storage of nutrients, temp. maintenance, sensory reception, excretion and secretion
deepest layer, cells firmly attached by hemidesmosome. Large stem cells, replace cells in upper layers
Outer layer of dermis, 15-30 layers of flattened dead epithelial cells, keratin, connected via desmosomes
peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves. Surrounded by epithelial stem cells
surrounded with connective tissue sheath and wall, shingle like layer of cells, hard keratin
4 steps in repair to injury
1. mast cells trigger inflammatory response
2. scab formed, clotting, migratory epithelium, macrophages, fibroblasts, granulation tissue
3. scar tissue formed
4. scab sheds, epidermis complete
Skeletal System Functions
supporting weight. stores minerals: phosphorus, calcium. blood cell production (yellow, red). protection. leverage.
no osteons, lamallae form rods, spaces between contain red bone marrow. stresses come from many directions.
hard bone, on outside of bones except joints. stresses come from limited range of directions
outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer. attaches fibers and ligaments to bone. bone growth and repair.
red bone marrow
red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells arise here. mainly in immature bone.
1. chondrocytes at center of cartilage enlarge, chondrocytes die as matrix calcifies. 2. newly made osteoblasts cover the cartilage in a thin layer of bone. 3. blood vessels penetrate cartilage, osteoblasts for spongy bone, center is primary center of ossification. 4. bone enlarges, osteoclasts for marrow cavity, new cartilage forms. 5. blood vessels are in epiphysis, are filled with spongy bone, new ossification centers form at ends of bone.
secreted by C cells in thyroid. decreases calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing calcium secretion in kidneys
produced in parathyroid glands. increases calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts, increasing interstitial absorbtion of calcium, decreases calcium excretion in kidneys
articulation united by fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, slightly movable joints. vertebral discs
Synovial Joint Components
Joint cavity, articular cartilage(hyaline), joint capsule (synovial membrane, fibrous capsule) ligaments, busa (small sac) helps with cushioning