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Collections of specialized cells and products, perform limited number of functions

Epithelial Tissue

tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs

Connective Tissue

Bone, Tendon, Ligament, Cartilage, provide support, fill in spaces, store energy

Muscle Tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth, allows movement

Neural Tissue

conducts electrical impulses, carries information

Apical Surface

Exposed surface of epithelia

Functions of Epithelia

Provide protection, control permeability, provides sensation, produce secretions

Exocrine Secretions

To surface of epithelium

Endocrine Secretions

Release into surrounding tissue fluid and blood

Intracellular Connections

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAM's), transmembrane proteins, cytoskeleton filaments, intracellular cement (protein, and polysacharide mixture)

Tight Junction

Bilayer's connected by interlocking proteins, Adhesion belt (near tight junctions, encircle cells binding them to neighbors, connect to cytoskeleton. PREVENT PASSAGE OF WATER AND SOLUTES

Gap Junctions

Allow communication,(embedded membrane proteins with holes), connexons allow small molecules to pass through them. Smooth and cardiac muscle tissue


Abundant between cells in superficial layers of skin. Intracellular cement, CAM's, proteins connect with intermediate filaments, spot desmosomes, cell to cell, semidesmosomes, cell to basement membrane


Active and passive transport of molecules, increases surface area


Beat in coordiated fashion, move materials across a surface

Basement Membrane

connects epithelia to underlying tissue, no cells, hemidesmosomes connect epithelia, resists distortion, acts as barrier

Simple Epithelium

Single layer of cells covering basement membrane

Stratified Epithelium

several layers of cells, not all connected to basement membrane, more protection. Surface of skin, lining of mouth

Squamous Epithelium

Thin, flat cell


Hexagonal boxes, neat rows


Hexagonal, but taller and thinner, rectangles, nuclei crowded close to basement membrane

Merocrine Secretion

Released by secretory vesicles by exocytosis, mucus

Apocrine Secretion

top of cell sheds, full of vesicles, cell regrows after break

Holocrine Secretion

Entire Cell becomes packed with secretions and bursts, cell dies


Surrounds cells, contains ground substance and extracellular protein fibers

Connective Tissue Proper

Dense, Loose, skin, fatty tissue, tendons, ligaments. Syrupy ground substance.

Fluid Connective Tissues

Blood, Lymph. watery ground substance.

Supporting Connective Tissues

cartilage, bone. Dense ground substance, fibrous matrix of bone


Produce connective tissue fibers and ground substance. Permanent residence, most abundant cells.


Phagocytize damaged cells or pathogens. Release chemicals mobilizing immune system. Throughout matrix. Fixed macrophages released during infection.

Fat Cells

Adipocyte, permanent resident, large droplet of lipid, nucleus pushed to side.

Stem cells

Respond to local injury, divide to produce daughter cells, differentiate into fibroblast, macrophages, and other cells

Mast Cells

released after injury or infection, cells rupture, packed with cytoplasm with vesicles packed with histamine and heprin (dilute blood)

Antibody producing cells

produces antibodies that destroy invading micro-organisms or foreign substances

Collagen Fibers

long, straight, unbranched, strong flexible

Elastic Fibers

Contain elastin (protein), branched and wavy, stretchy

Reticular Fibers

Honeycomb shape, thinner than collagen


Avascular, Matrix, Chondrocytes


Live in Lacunae, obtain nutrients, eliminate waste via diffusion, limited repair possibilities


covers and separates structures of cartilage from surrounding tissues, inner cellular layer, fibrous layer

Hyaline Cartilage

Most common, closely packed collagen fibers, connects ribs to sternum, supports trachea, covers bone surface in joints

Elastic Cartilage

Numerous elastic fibers, flexible. Ear, epiglottis, airway to ear

Fibrous Cartilage

Little ground substance, matrix full of collagen fibers, resist compression, absorb shock, prevent bone to bone contact, knee, vertebrae, between pubic bones


Cell of bone, sit within lacume (matrix)


Branching network with bony canals


Covering that surrounds bone, outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer

Mucous Membranes

Lines cavities, digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract, lined by simple epithelial

Serous Membranes

Lines sealed internal subdivisions of the ventral body cavity, parietal(lines inner surface of cavity, covers outer surface of cavity), and visceral. Simple epithelium supported by loose connective tissue. Minimizes friction.


Lines pleural cavities, covers lungs


lines peritoneal cavity covers surface of enclosed organs, liver, stomach


Lines the pericardial cavity, covers heart

Cutaneous Membrane


Synovial Membrane

Lines fibrous capsule that surrounds freely movable joints, hyaline cartilage separated by synovial fluid. Loose connective tissue.

Skeletal Muscle

voluntary movement, striated voluntary muscle

Cardiac Muscle

in heart, circulates blood, maintains blood pressure

Smooth Muscle

found in walls of blood vessels, digestic, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive organs

Neural Tissue

Brain and spinal cord, conduct chemical impulses in body,


Communicate through electrical events effecting the plasma membrane, longest cell in body, receive and carry information in body. axon- carry dendrite-receive


Provide physical support for neural tissue, maintains chemical composition, provide nutrients to neurons, defend the tissue from infection


speeds up process of removal of waste products and toxins. mast cells produce histamine and heparin.


fibroblasts rebuild

Major Functions of Integument

Protection, synthesis and storage of nutrients, temp. maintenance, sensory reception, excretion and secretion


stratified epithelium, thick skin- 5 layers, thin skin- 4 layers.

Stratum Germinativum

deepest layer, cells firmly attached by hemidesmosome. Large stem cells, replace cells in upper layers


synthisize melanin, yellow-brown pigment

Stratum Spinosum

adds to thickness of epithelium, cells may still divide (spiny layer)

Stratum Granulosum

cells no longer divide, begin to produce large amounts of keratin (grainy layer)


protein, durable water resistant

Stratum Lucidium

Only thick skin, flattened cells, densely packed with keratin

Stratum Corneum

Outer layer of dermis, 15-30 layers of flattened dead epithelial cells, keratin, connected via desmosomes


contains nutrients for the epidermis, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers

Hair Papilla

peg of connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves. Surrounded by epithelial stem cells

Hair Root

portion that anchors hair to the skin

Hair Shaft

Visible part, 3 layers of keratinized cells


surrounded with connective tissue sheath and wall, shingle like layer of cells, hard keratin


under cuticle, thick layers of hard keratin


core, flexible soft keratin

Sebaceous Glands

Holocrine glands, arrector pilli forces out secretion, sebum-oily lipid secretion

Accessory Structures

Nail, horn, hoof

4 steps in repair to injury

1. mast cells trigger inflammatory response
2. scab formed, clotting, migratory epithelium, macrophages, fibroblasts, granulation tissue
3. scar tissue formed
4. scab sheds, epidermis complete

Skeletal System Functions

supporting weight. stores minerals: phosphorus, calcium. blood cell production (yellow, red). protection. leverage.


immature bone cells


secrete acid and protein digesting enzymes (break down)


mature bone cells

Long bone

Femur, Humerus. Longer than wide

Short Bone

Carpal, tarsal. approx. same length and width

irregular bone


flat bone

parietal bone


where the oseocytes sit in the osteon


narrow sheets of calcified matrix. osteon rings.


small channels through the matrix. connect lacunae. osetocytes travel through

perforating canal

how osteons communicate. carry blood vessles into bone and marow

spongey bone

no osteons, lamallae form rods, spaces between contain red bone marrow. stresses come from many directions.


central shaft of bone


ends of bone

Compact Bone

hard bone, on outside of bones except joints. stresses come from limited range of directions

Red Bone Marrow



outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer. attaches fibers and ligaments to bone. bone growth and repair.


cellular layer of periosteum

red bone marrow

red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells arise here. mainly in immature bone.

Endochondral Ossification

1. chondrocytes at center of cartilage enlarge, chondrocytes die as matrix calcifies. 2. newly made osteoblasts cover the cartilage in a thin layer of bone. 3. blood vessels penetrate cartilage, osteoblasts for spongy bone, center is primary center of ossification. 4. bone enlarges, osteoclasts for marrow cavity, new cartilage forms. 5. blood vessels are in epiphysis, are filled with spongy bone, new ossification centers form at ends of bone.


secreted by C cells in thyroid. decreases calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity and increasing calcium secretion in kidneys

parathyroid hormone

produced in parathyroid glands. increases calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts, increasing interstitial absorbtion of calcium, decreases calcium excretion in kidneys

open fracture

projects through the skin

transverse fractures

fracture that breaks across through long axis of bone.

spiral fracture

twisting stresses along length of bone

greenstick fractures

occur in young animals

comminuted fractures

shattered bone

simple joints

two bones articulate

compound joints

two or more bones meet

fibrous joint

articulation by fibrous tissue, little or no movement. sutured. skull bones.

cartilaginous joint

articulation united by fibrocartilage, hyaline cartilage, slightly movable joints. vertebral discs

synovial joint

articulated by synovial joint capsule. freely movable joints.

synarthrosis joint

immovable joint. fibrous or cartilaginous connection. skull bones, teeth.


slightly movable joint


freely movable joint

Synovial Joint Components

Joint cavity, articular cartilage(hyaline), joint capsule (synovial membrane, fibrous capsule) ligaments, busa (small sac) helps with cushioning


reduces angle between two bones


increases angle between two bones


over extended

dorsal and ventral flexion

bending the spine


movement around the long axis


all movements, shoulder joint


moving toward median or plane


moving away from the median plane

gliding joint

two surfaces slide past each other, between carpal bones.

Hing joint

allowing movement at right angles

pivot joint

rotation around longitudinal axis of bone

ellipsodal joint

movement in two planes

saddle joint

articular surface concave in one and convex in the other

ball and socket

universal movement. shoulder bone

wool hair

sheep. wavy, fine


face hairs, whiskers

guard hairs

outer coat

long hair


tactile hair

stiff sensory hairs

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