lipids I and II

describe how lipids (mainly triglycerides) are used to serve as reserve supply of energy
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Terms in this set (53)
vitamin Aprecursor to rhodopsin, carrots number one source of vitamin A tuna secondeicosanoidschemical messengers inflammation, intraoccqular pressuresimple lipids = esters of fatty acidstriglyceridescomplex lipids (esters of fatty acids + additional groups)phospholipid sphingolipidsderived lipids (derived from hydrolysis of simple/complex lipids)steroids (ex: bile salts, steroid hormones, sterols) isoprenoids (ex: vitamins A, E, K) eicosanoids (ex: prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes)fatty acid what is ithydrocarbon chain with carboxyl group at one end even number carbons (10-30)most common saturated fat in plants and animalspalmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid)position of first double bond relative to methyl endomega carbon (farthest from carboxyl group)simple lipid that are important to eyeeicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - fatty fish docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - fatty fish alpha linolenic acid (ALA) - flaxseed, walnuts arachidonic acid - meat and egg yolk linoleic acid - plant oils, nutssingle bonds in hydrocabron chainsaturated linear soliddouble bonds in hydrocabon chainunsaturated bent liquid cis or transcis2 hydrogens attached same side most naturally occuring unsaturated fatty acids are cistranstwo hydrogens, opposite side of double bond most are industrial process adds hydrogens to liquid vegetable oils to make more solid hydrocarbon chain is straight (EVEN THOUGH UNSATURATED)trans unsaturated fatty acidsSTRAIGHT HYDROCARBON TAILSester of a fatty acidalcohol + fatty acid alcohol = glycerol or sphingosinetriglycerides made of3 fatty acids + glycerol (length + degree of saturation varies) storage form of fatty acidsphospholipids made of2 fatty acids + glycerol + phosphate + 1 polar grouppossible polar groups of phospholipidsethanolamine - cell membranes + pharmaceuticals choline - maintenance of cell membranes serine - metabolism and maintenance of immune system inositol - fruid, seeds, gains - important for signal transductionsphingolipids structurefatty acids + sphingosine + 1 head grouppossible head groups of sphingolipids structurehydrogen (ceramide - major component of lipid bilayer + component of aqueous humor) phosphocholine (sphingomyelin) - retinal diseases (macular degeneration, diabetic retinothapy, glaucoma) sugar (glycolipid: 1 sugar = cerebroside, > 1 sugar = ganglioside)1 sugarcerebrosidemore than one sugargangliosidesteroid (derived lipid) structuresteroid core + side chain core = four fused rings side chains: uniquesterol structurestructure: side chain is a hydroxyl groupmost common sterolcholesterolcholesterol is the most common steroid and it is the precursor to _____________ and _____________steroid hormones and bile saltstwo important bile acids in humanscholyl-CoA chenodeoxycholyl-CoAreaction of bile acids to bile saltsacid conjugated with glycine or taurine reaction produces water and chemical saltsbile salts where stored what does it aid inderivative of cholesterol stored in: gallbladder what does it aid in: dietary lipids (emulsification) + absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, Kfour types of steroid hormonesmineralocorticoids glucocorticoids sex steroids vitamin Dmineralocorticoids examples what do they doexamples: corticosterone, aldosterone what do they do: regulate H2O and salt balanceglucocorticoids examples what do they doexamples: cortisol what do they do: regulate stress management, inflammation, suppress immune systemsex steroids examples what do they doexamples: regulate sexual development + function what do they do: progesterone, testosterone, estrogenvitamins D examples what do they doexamples: some true steroid characteristics what do they do: regulate calcium memtabolismnatural steroid hormones derived from cholesterol and all have four ring structure can these pass through cell membrane?yes, they can pass through cell membrane and bind to steroid receptorsisoprenoids structure examplestructure: isoprene subunits (unsaturated, pentahydrocarbon) examples: fat-soluble vitamins A, E, Keicosanoids derived from examplesderived from: arachidonic acid (Poly unsaturated omega-6 FA) examples: prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes signalling moleculesarachidonic acidan omega-6 fatty acidprostaglandins roleinflammation, pain, edema decrease platelet adhesion' elevated in tears for dry eyethromboxane roleplatelet aggregationleukotrienepotent bronchoconstrictors bronchial asthma, ARDSprostacyclininhibits platelet aggregationprostaglandin analogsfirst choice to treat glaucoma mimics function of naturally occurring prostaglandin prostaglandin E2 thromboxane A2 (TXA2) prostacyclin (PGI2) leukotriene B4