This disorder must also involve impairment in adaptive functioning, relative to a person's age and cultural group, in a variety of daily life activities (e.g., communication, social participation, and independent living).
Problems using money
Problems telling time
Problems relating to other people in social settings
Onset is before 18 years of age.
The degree of severity is assigned by the clinician:
Mild: may be able to perform personal care but needs support with complex daily tasks in daily living such as shopping, transportation, child care and money management.
Moderate: capable of caring for a range of personal needs, though considerable training is required first. Employment in job involves limited conceptual thinking skills requiring supervision and support. A small minority engage in maladaptive behavior.
Severe:requires support and supervision for all daily tasks, cannot make decisions for self or others; as an adult it requires life long training and support for any type of skill acquisition. A number of people may engage in maladaptive behavior, including self injury.
Profound:dependent on other people for all aspects of daily activities may be able to assist with some tasks at home or the workplace. can enjoy a variety of physical entertainments through physical and sensory impairments prevent active participation. A significant minority engage in maladaptive behavior.
In DSM-5, level of severity is based on how well the individual is able to adapt in conceptual, social, and practical domains.
IQ score is no longer the deciding factor on level of severity
Condition in which children are born missing an enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxase.
Leads to developmental delays, a smaller than normal head size, hyperactivity, jerking arm and leg movements, seizures, skin rashes, and tremors.
Show abnormalities in strategy use on verbal tasks, even if they received treatment early in life.
Tay-Sachs disease - Deficits in intellectual functioning occur due to a lack of hexosaminidase A.
Symptoms - Developmental delays, deafness, blindness, loss of muscle tone and motor skills, dementia, delayed reflexes, listlessness, paralysis, seizures, and slow growth.
Second category of causes of intellectual developmental disabilities
Brain injury (during delivery, or due to an accident)
Heavy metal ingestion
Malnutrition in the mother during fetal development:
Infections in the mother during fetal development:
Rubella:Exposure to mother during first trimester is particularly dangerous. After birth and all through childhood, mental retardation can result from diseases, head injuries, exposure to toxic substances like lead or carbon monoxide.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS):Mental retardation in a child whose mother consumed large amounts of alcohol on a regular basis while pregnant.
Considered by some to be the leading cause of mental retardation.
a set of abnormalities in facial appearance, slower than average growth patterns, and most importantly, maturation of the nervous system resulting in intellectual deficits. Maternal alcohol use during all stages of pregnancy can cause damage to the developing child.
The medical profession considers the level of harmful drinking more than 80 grams of alcohol per day (about 3 ounces). The greater the amount of alcohol a pregnant woman consumes, the greater the eff ects on the child
[Teratogens include drugs or toxic chemicals, maternal malnutrition, and infections in the mother during critical phases of fetal development.]
Speech sound disorder: substitutes, omits, or incorrectly articulates speech sounds.
For example, a child may use a t sound for the letter k, saying "tiss" rather than "kiss." People oft en regard the mispronunciations of children as cute; however, these childhood speech patterns are likely to cause academic problems as the child grows older and becomes ridiculed by other children in school.
Children who experience Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder (Stuttering) are unable to produce fluent speech.
Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder have deficits in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication.
-have deficits in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication. They have problems adjusting their behavior to the social context, such as knowing how to greet people or interpret the way they are greeted. In addition, they are unable to match their communication with the needs of the listener, such as talking differently to children and adults. In a conversation,
they have difficulties following the ordinary conventions of taking turns when speaking. Finally, they have trouble understanding implicit or ambiguous meanings such as those used in humor and metaphors. These deficits can make it difficult not only for individuals to communicate effectively, but also to perform on the job and participate in ordinary social interactions.
13th EditionLori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley 1st EditionRichard A. Kasschau