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These cards relate to ARC - HSER341 - Pharmacology & Physiology of Alcohol and other Drugs

What is Absorption?

From point of entry into the blood stream

What is Distribution?

Delivery of substance to body compartment via bloodstream

What is Metabolism?

Detoxification of breakdown of substance into metabolites that can no longer exert and effect and that can be eliminated from the body.

What is Excretion?

Removal of metabolites through urine, feces, sweat, exhalation

What are the Routes of Administration?

Oral, Injection (IV, IM, SQ), Inhalation, Mucous membranes, skin

What is Passive Diffusion?

the movement of a substance, usually across a plasma membrane (blood vessel) by a mechanism that does not require metabolic energy

What is Active transport?

The transport of ions, nutrients or other molecules into a cell against a concentration gradient and requires the expenditure of energy.

Blood circulates around the body about once a _________


What is First pass metabolism

the breaking down of substances by drug-metabolizing enzymes (GI Tract or Liver) prior to reaching the brain

What is the circulation route for Oral, mucous, skin, IM or SQ?

absorbes into blood stream to right-side of heart, to lungs, to left side of heart, to brain

What is the circulation route for IV injected drugs?

requires no absorption; goes to to right-side of heart, to lungs, to left side of heart, to brain

What is the circulation route for inhaled drugs?

lungs to left side of heart to brain

What is the Absorption time for IM injection?

3 - 5 minutes

What is the Absorption time for SQ injection?

3 - 5 minutes

What is the Absorption time for intranasal/insufflation?

3 - 5 minutes

What is the Absorption time for sublingual?

3 - 5 minutes

What is the Absorption time for skin (patch)?

hours to days depending on substance and delivery mechanism

What is the Absorption time for oral?

30 - 60 minutes

What is the Absorption time for IV injection?

none - administered directly into bloodstream

What is the Absorption time for inhalation?

7 - 10 seconds

Variants in times for onest of action result in _______ rate not ______ rate.

absorption; distribution rate

What is Concentration gradient force?

helps maintain an equilibrium or balance by the rate-of-change in volume or mass of substance in an area at any given time.

What is albumin?

protein cells

What kind of molecules can pass through capillaries?

small lipid-soluble and larger lipid-insoluble (water-soluble); not red blood cells or protein cells

What does Protein bound mean?

substances attached to protein cells in the blood and, therefore, unable to leave the bloodstream

What are the Body membranes that affect drug distribution?

Cell membranes; capillaries; blood-brain barrier; placental barrier

What can pass to the blood brain barrier?

Small lipid-soluble can pass, but not larger water soluble molecules

What can pass to the placental barrier?

lipid-soluble can pass readily and without limitation primarily by passive diffusion

What does Renal mean?

Kidney function

What does Hepatic mean?

Liver function

What is the major route of drug elimination from the body?

Major route of elimination is renal (kidney) excretion of drug metabolites produced by hepatic (liver) metabolism of the parent drug

What are the Roles of kidney in drug elimination (2)?

Excretion of products of body metabolism; maintenance of body fluid levels

What are theRoles of liver in drug elimination (2)?

Converting psychoactive parent drugs to inactive metabolites (deactivate); converting highly lipid-soluble molecules to water-soluble metabolites

What factors can affect drug biotransformation by increasing or decreasing the rate of drug elimination

Genetic, environmental and physiological factors

What is drug half-live?

The time for the plasma level to drop by 50%

How many half-lives does it take for 94% to be eliminated?

4 half-lives

How many half-lives does it take for 98% to be eliminated?

6 Half-lives

What drug is an exception to to drug elimination?

Ethyl Alcohol - constant amount of alcohol is metabolized per hour

What is the definition of drug tolerance?

A state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a drug; a person requires a larger dose of a drug to achieve the originally obtained effect by a smaller dose.

What is Metabolic tolerance?

The increased capacity of the liver to metabolize the parent drug molecule through increased enzyme levels.

What is Cellular-adaptive or pharmacodynamic tolerance?

The adaptation of the brain cells to the continued presence of the drug by down regulation.

What is down regulation?

The reduction of the number of receptors available to the drug and reduction of the sensitivity to the drug.

What is behavioral conditioning?

Comes from routinely pairing environmental cues with drug administration so that the conditioned stimuli will elicit a conditioned response that is opposite in direction or compensation for the direct effects of the drug.

What is physical dependence?

Means a person needs to continue the use of a drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms (occurrence of physical and/or psychological changes.)

What is psychological dependence?

Means a person craves the drug long after the withdrawal symptoms have subsided.

What is positive reinforcement?

Refers to the likelihood of repeating a given behavior that elicits or produces a desired effect.

What is negative reinforcement?

Refers to the likelihood of repeating a given behavior for the removal or avoidance of a negative or undesirable effect. Explains the motivation to re-administer a drug after becoming physically dependent (to avoid withdrawal).

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