Peds Chap 4 Growth and Development

physic development:

-raises head and chest when prone
-opens and shuts hands
-brings hand to mouth
-grasps and shakes toys
-rolls both ways
-sits w/ and w.out support of hands
-supports whole weight on legs
-reaches with one hand
-transfers objects from hand to hand
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Terms in this set (78)
cognitive development: -explores objects in different ways -finds hidden objects easily -looks at correct picture when image is named -imitates gestures -begins to use objects correctly -loves peek-a-boo (laughs)7-12 months (late infancy)age when can introduce solid foods -dice into tiny pieces -no grapes at 9 months -slowly progress diet make sure it's mushy and soft -can try to introduce utensils or sippy cup9 monthsposterior fontanel closes by1-2 monthsanterior fontanel closes by12-18 monthsinfants gain approx. ____ lbs per month during the first 5-6 months of life1.5birth weight doubles by ____ months6birth weight triples by ____ months12birth weight quadruples by _____ months30infants grow approx. ____ cm or ___ inch per month for the first 6 months of life2.5, 1growth occurs in spurts after the age of ____ months6birth length increased by _____% by age of 12 months50%first teeth typically erupt between ____ and ____ months6 and 10____ to ___ teeth should erupt by end of 1 year of age6 to 8indications of _____: -sucking/biting on hard objects or fingers -drooling -difficulty sleeping -mild fever -rubbing ears -decreased appetite for solid foods -dentist appt. as soon as first tooth erupts (just to look) -no bottles in crib, can lead to dental cariesteethingformula: age (in mos) - 6 = # of teeth child should have at that ageteethingphysical development: -walks alone -pulls toys behind when walking -begins to run -kicks a ball -begins to dress self -two-foot jumps -stands on tiptoes1-3 yrs (toddlerhood)kids walk alone at?13 monthskids begin to run, kick a ball, dress self at?2 yrskids can jump on two feet and stand on tiptoes at?30 monthssocial development: -tolerates some separation -imitates behavior of others -temper tantrums common -increased independence from parents -like to play w/ other kids (parallel play)1-3 yrs (toddlerhood)kids begin to tolerate some separation and imitate behavior at?15 monthstemper tantrum begin at?18 monthsincreased independence from parents at?2 yrstoddlers not playing together, but playing next to each other toddler are very egocentricparallel playcognitive development: -forms memories of events that relate to them -finds objects in several hiding places -object permanence fully developed -sorts by shape and color -plays make-believe (house) -uses 2-3 word phrases1-3 yrs (toddlerhood)kids form memories at?13+ monthskids find objects in several hiding places and have fully developed object permanence at?19+ monthskids sort by shape and color, use 2-3 word phrases, and play make-believe at?2+ yrsat age ____ 50% of understandable language to people other than parents2at age _____ 75% understandable language3at age ____ 100% understandable language4toddlers grow approx. _____ to ____ lbs per year4-6toddlers grow approx. ____ cm or ___ inches per year7.5, 3-should have an established dental provider by age 1 -flossing and brushing should be performed by adult caregiver and are best methods for removing plaque -brushing should occur after meals and at bedtime -nothing to eat or drink (except water) after bedtime cleaning1-3 yrs (toddlerhood)kids start to show signs of readiness for potty training between _____ months to _____ yrs -however, starting too early can cause potty training to take longer18, 3signs of readiness: -recognizing sensation of needing to urinate or defecate -ability to communicate need to go potty -voluntary control of anal and urethral sphincters (dry for at least 2 hrs) -able to sit for short periods of time -able to dress/undress for toilet -interest in sitting on pottypotty trainingphysical development: -climbs well -walks up and down stairs -kicks ball and runs easily -pedals tricycle -bends over w/out falling -eruption of deciduous teeth is finalized3-6 yrs (preschool)social development: -imitates adults and playmates -shows affection for familiar playmates -can take turns in games -understand "mine" and "his/hers" -enjoys talking -associative play (puzzles, computer programs)3-6 yrs (preschool)cognitive development: -makes mechanical toys work -matches object in hand to picture in book -sorts objects by shape and color -completes 3-4 piece puzzles -language primary form of communication -feel good about gaining independence -should know all colors and most shapes -can draw simple shapes3-6 yrs (preschool)by age _____ kids should know all colors and most shapes3by age ____ kids should be able to draw a square4physical development: -rapid growth in height and weight -prepubertal changes -permanent teeth erupt -differences in rate of growth and maturation btwn. boys and girls becomes apparent6-12 yrs (school-age)social development: -peer group play -bullying -make crafts -collect things/engage in hobbies -play board games and card games -join organized competitive sports -need for privacy6-12 yrs (school-age)cognitive development: -conceptual thinking -learn to tell time -see perspective of others -solve problems -classify more complex information6-12 yrs (school-age)-judgement guided by rewards/punishments6-9 yrs (early school-age)-treats others the way they want to be treated -awareness of self in relation to others -opinions of peers and teacher are more valuable10-12 yrs (late school-age)physical development: 1. breast development 2. pubic hair growth 3. axillary hair growth 4. vaginal discharge 5. menstruation *pubic hair growth may occur before breast development*female adolescents (13-18)physical development: 1. testicular enlargement 2. pubic hair growth 3. penile enlargement 4. axillary hair growth 5. increase in muscularity 6. early voice changes 7. early facial hair growthmale adolescents (13-18)social/cognitive development: -begins w/ close, same-sex friendships and transitions to intimate relationships -mood swings -view self as invincible, risky behavior -compares self to peers -body image issues -capable of evaluating quality of own thinking -able to maintain attention for longer periods of time -highly imaginative and idealistic -capable of using formal logic to make decisions -thinking beyond current circumstances -able to understand how actions influence othersadolescents (13-18)Erikson's Stages: name: infancy age: 1-1.5 yrs crisis: trust vs mistrust + outcome: feelings of trust - outcome: fear or mistruststage 1Erikson's Stages: name: early childhood age: 1.5-3 yrs crisis: autonomy vs shame and doubt + outcome: self sufficiency - outcome: lack of independencestage 2Erikson's Stages: name: play age age: 3-5 yrs crisis: initiative vs guilt + outcome: discover ways to intimate actions - outcome: guilt from actions/thoughts (kids this age feel responsible for things happening)stage 3Erikson's Stages: name: school age age: 5-12 yrs crusts: industry vs inferiority + outcome: development of sense of competence - outcome: no sense of masterystate 4Erikson's Stages: name: adolescence age: 12-18 crisis: identity vs role confusion + outcome: awareness of uniqueness of self - outcome: inability to identify appropriate roles of lifestage 5Erikson's Stages: name: young adult age: 12-18 yrs crisis: intimacy vs isolation + outcome: development of loving, sexual relationships - outcome: fear of relationships with othersstage 6-can be introduced once BF is well established to help avoid nipple confusion -benefits = can get rid of it, unlike thumb sucking so preferred by dentists and decreases risk of SIDSpacifier usehealth concerns in school age (6-12): -weighing more than average for height and weight -age and gender BMI btwn. 85th-95th percentileoverweighthealth concerns in school age (6-12): -an increase in body weight resulting from an excess accumulation of body fat relative to lean body mass -age and gender BMI at or > than 95th percentile -worried about HTN, type 2 DMobesitypsychological and social concern: -social humiliation -bullying -low self-esteem -anxiety and depression -emotional eating -discrimination -eating disorders -emotional distressoverweight and obesityinterventions: -diet modification NOT dieting (don't want to restrict food, want to modify) -exercise/physical activity -behavior modificaiton -Orlistat (medicaiton) -counseling -limit sugar consumption -increase fruits and vegetables -family meals and food prep -limit eating out -limit portion size -eat breakfast dailyoverweight and obesityTanner stage _____ = not difference between boys and girls from torso view1Tanner stage ____ = most developed it will get5concerns warranting further assessment in females: secondary sex characteristics before the age of ____8concerns warranting further assessment in females: absence of menarche past the age of _____15concerns warranting further assessment in males: secondary sex characteristics before the age of ______9concerns warranting further assessment in males: absence of genitalia enlargement by age _____14takes at least ____ yrs to go from beginning to end of puberty2.5-normal if transient (< 1 yr) and during puberty -if prepubescent or past Tanner stage 5 needs evaluation -abnormal causes = gonadal tumors, liver disease, LKlinefelter syndrome -can be drug induced (CCBs, H2 blockers, ketoconazoles, marijuana) ONLY CONCERNING before and after pubertygynecomastia