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What supplemental compounds are required for growth of Francisiella tularenis on blood agar?
Francisiella tularenis oxygen requirement
*grown on cysteine-glucose blood agar
*slow growth: requires 2-10 days for visible growth
What part of the U.S. is the focus of Francisciella tularensis infection?
Southwest to Central U.S.
*map suggests not much of a focus
Describe bacteremic spread of Francisiella tularensis
infects RES with eventual granuloma formation
What type of media is used to grow Pasteurella multicoda?
*not on media selective for gram-negatives (MacConkey's)
What is the natural habitat of Pasteurella multicoda?
normal respiratory flora of animals such as cats and dogs
*sometimes found in human sputum
Pasteurella multicoda Sx
local infection at site of inoculation
diffuse cellulitis with clear border
Burkholderia mallei reservoirs
domestic animals --> horses, donkeys, mules
*spread by droplets
*no man-to-man transmission known
Burkholderia pseudomallei reservoirs
*man-to-man transmission rare but possible
What 2 disorders are associated with Glanders and Melioidosis?
HIV and diabetes
*Glanders & Melioidosis are complications of HIV and diabetes.
Yersinia pestis gram-staining property, oxidase, oxygen requirement
gram-negative non-sporeforming rod that is an oxidase negative faculative anaerobe
Describe the life cycle of Yerisnia pestis.
The rat flea contracts Yersinia when it takes a blood meal from an infected rodent host.
Yersinia multiplies in the GIT of the flea.
The starving flea regurgitates infectious material when attempting to take another blood meal.
Flea eventually dies.
What part of the U.S.A. is endemic for sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis)?
Four Corners --> Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah meet
Where in the body does Yersinia pestis multiply?
axillary lymph nodes
*higher temperature induces formation of virulence factors
*infected lymph node swells and becomes a bubo (painful swelling of the lymph node)
Yersina pestis secondary exposure
pulmonary infection which can be transmitted via respiratory droplets --> pneumonic plague
Patient presents with swollen, painful inguinal lymph nodes with increasing fever, pooling of blood and microhemorrhages in the face and extremities.
acute stage of bubonic plague
Why are some descendents of survivors of the bubonic plague less susceptible to HIV?
Many persons of European ancestry carry a gene which codes for a defective CCR-5 sequence.
How does maintenance of disease differ between the louse-borne and tick-borne borreliosis?
louse-borne: Borrelia recurentis is maintained in human populations
tick-borne: same organism survives in a rodent reservoir
What is the major virulence factor for Borrelia spp.?
outer membrane proteins encoded by plasmids which give organisms increased antigenic variability
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