Milady Fundamentals Chapter 12 (makeup essentials)

_____ percentage of women surveyed feel more confident when wearing makeup
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When determining skin color, you must first decide if the skin is...?Fair, medium, or darkUsed to describe the warmth or coolness of a color and is generally classified as light, medium, or darktone of skinCould be cool (pink, red, or bluish undertones), warm (yellow, peachy, or golden undertones), or neutral (a mix of warm and cool undertones)Skin undertoneWhat should you do to determine a client's undertone?Use the neck or forearm; if the client is frequently exposed to the sun, use the neck as the primary indicator of skin undertoneThe majority of the world's population has _____ skin color with ____ undertonesWarm, yellowWhat color foundation should be used to neutralize excess redness in ruddy skin tones?Yellow or green tinted foundationSkin that is unnaturally red, wind burned, or affected by rosacearuddy skin toneFor client's with a ruddy skin tone, you will want to use what shade of blush?A neutral tan shade; avoid red and pink tonesSallow skin toneSkin that has a yellowish toneWhat color foundation should you use on a client with a sallow skin tone?A pink based foundation; avoid using yellow-based colors for eyes, cheeks, and lipsWhat makeup color is complementary to most skin tones?Blue; lighter blues enhance darker skin while darker blue brings out color and is complementary to lighters skin; combines well with almost all other colorsRed is a _____ color that combines well with colors such as black, white, beige, gray, blue, navy, green, and yellowVibrant color; red with blue undertones is cool, with yellow undertones it is warm; freckles will look darker when red is reflected onto the faceWhen selecting eye colors, what tones are always your safest choice?Neutral tonesOrange; because orange contains yellow and red, shadows with any of these colors in them will make eyes look bluerComplementary color choice for blue eyesRed; because red shadows tend to make the eyes look tired or bloodshot, pure red tones are not recommended; instead, use brown-based reds or other color options next to red on the color wheelComplementary color choice for green eyesBrown eyes are neutral and can wear any color; recommmended choices include contrasting colors such as greens, blues, grays, and silversComplimentary color choice for brown eyesAfter choosing the eye makeup, you should do what with the cheek and lip makeup?Coordinate them in the same warm or cool color familyWidest at the temple and forehead, tapering down to a curved chin; this is considered the ideal facial shape because of its balance and overall look of symmetryoval face shapeWidest at the cheekbone area and is usually not much longer than it is wide having a softly rounded jawline, short chin, and rounded hairline over a rather full foreheadround face shapeHas a wide, angular jawline and forehead; the lines of this face are straight and angularsquare face shapeLong and narrow shape; the cheeks are often hollowed under prominent cheekbones; corrective makeup can be applied to create the illusion of width across the cheekbone line, making the face appear shorter and widerrectangle face shapeWidest at the base or jawline, tapering up to slightly narrower cheeks and reaching its apex at a narrow forehead; a jaw that is wider than the forehead characterizes this shape; corrective makeup can be applied to create width at the forehead, slender ice the jawline, and add length to the facetriangle (pear shaped) face shapeWide at the temple and forehead area and tapers down to a narrow chin, forming a heart shape (inverted triangle)heart face shapeWidest at the cheekbones, has a narrow chin and foreheadDiamond face shapeAKA base makeup; a tinted cosmetic used to even out skin tone and color, conceal imperfections, and protect the skin from the outside elements of climate, dirt and pollutionFoundationFoundation that usually contains mineral oil or other oils; a good choice for normal to dry skinOil based foundationGood for occluding the skin and proving a more even surface; can also diffuse imperfections; more durable for prolonged wear and an excellent choice for bridal makeupSilicone based productsAKA pancake makeup; a heavy cream foundation; normally applied to the face with a moistened cosmetic sponge, and is used for theater and film, or whenever extreme coverage is neededCake makeupComposed of minerals and other ingredients and designed to be healthy for the skin; a mineral-based foundation is considered more noncomedogenic and natural than liquid foundationsMineral makeupLighter than the client's skin color; accentuates and brings out features such as the brow bone under the eyebrow, the temples, the chin, and the cheekbones; typically found in liquid and powder formsHighlighterGenerally mineral oil with a small amount of fragrance added; great for removing waterproof mascara, dramatic eye makeup, and artificial lashesOil based eye makeup removersGood for blending foundation, concealer, and powderMakeup spongesUsed to blend powder, blush, and eyeshadows, as they work better than sponge tips or fingersMakeup brushesWhen working with clients, what type of brushes are ideal?Disposable brushesCan be used for blending foundation colors together or mixing foundation and moisturizer for a lighter tinted foundation; palettes are also great for holding productsMixing cupsUse a single use spatula, or palette knife, to place a small amount of product on a palette; this will keep the main product free from pathogens such as bacteria and fungus and protect your client from infectionTip for using a makeup paletteSharpen pencils and wipe with tissue; if they cannot be sharpened, they cannot be cleaned; pencils with auto rollers or felt tips cannot be sharpened and should never be used on a clientGuidelines for cleaning multi use makeup pencilsTry to have your makeup station in a visible yet semi-private area of the salon; also, having good visual references at hand is also suggested as you discuss makeup styles with your clientGood ideas for set up of a makeup station and consultation areaPros and cons of traditional incandescent light bulbsPros: inexpensive, available in daylight color /Cons: produce the most heat of all lighting optionsIn most cases, the concealer should...Match the tone of the foundationNo closer to the nostrils than the center of the pupil and no lower to the jawbone than an imaginary line from the tip of the nose to the middle of the ear; the blush should gently kiss the temple area but does not reach the hairline in that regionIn what area should you apply blush?A technique using one or both hands positioned to avoid client injury,keeping your hands stead and the client safe; for bracing around the eyes use the back side of your dominant hand on the client's face to steady yourself while using the fingers of the same hand to manipulate the applicator, brush, or pencil; for the eyes, brace your hand just above the brow, not at the top of the headBracingWhen should you curl the eyelashes?Before applying mascaraWhat are two important factors in a good makeup application?Blending and evennessReshaping technique for a wide jawApply a darker foundation below the cheekbones and along the jawline; blend into the neckReshaping technique for deep-set eyesUse bright, light, reflective colorsReshaping technique for close-set eyesTo diminish dark circles under the eyes, apply concealer over the dark area, blending and smoothing it into the surrounding area; set lightly with translucent powderThe third line of an ideal brow shape is...Vertical, from the outer circle of the iris (colored part of the eye) upward to the highest point of the brow archWhat should you suggest if you are working with a client for an evening event or one with lower lighting that is more formal?A stronger makeup look, perhaps with false eyelashesWhat is helpful to do during a bridal consultation?Ask to see a photograph of the dress to determine how formal the event will beFor mascara when doing a dramatic smoky eye look, you should...Apply 2-3 coats of mascara with a disposable wandWhat becomes much more visible on screen with the introduction of high-definition (HD) cameras?Imperfections in skin and makeupWhat can you do to make sure HD and bright lighting doesn't dilute the look of makeup?Adjusting the darkness of the brows and choosing slightly more intense colors for eyes, cheeks, and lips works well and avoids the use of heavy foundationDesigned to be invisible when using high-definition cameras; formulated with super-fine micro particles that blend into the skin to provide a flawless complexionHigh definition makeupImportant skill set for working with postoperative patients, persons with congenital effects or scarring, or persons experiencing illness or injury; typically done in a doctor's office, hospital, or cancer centerCamouflage makeupSmall clusters of three or four lashes on one point of attachmentTab artificial eyelashesSeparate artificial eyelashes that are applied on top of the upper lashes one at a timeIndividual artificial lashesHow should you remove artificial lashes?Starting from the outer corner, remove the lashes carefully to avoid pulling out the client's own lashesWhat kind of tint should you not use for lash or brow tinting?Tints with aniline derivatives (coal-tar based); these are not FDA approved and can cause blindnessA cosmetic implantation technique that deposits colored pigment into the upper reticular layer of the dermis, similar to tattooingpermanent makeupA tattooing or semipermanent makeup technique where a small hand-held device made up of tiny needles is used to add pigment to the skin; the initial procedure takes approximately 1-2.5 hours to performMicrobladingWhat is one of the biggest challenges clients face when purchasing cosmetics?Finding the correct colors and finishesWhen applying mascara...Dip the disposable wand then wipe off the excess productWhen a client is only having artificial lashes applied...Be sure to remove mascara so that the lash adhesive will adhere properlyWhen applying individual lashes...Apply one at a time with tweezers until you have 5 or 6 lashes that are evenly spaced across the lash lineWhen washing off a brow/lash tint...Rinse each area with water at least 3 times with wet cotton swabs and cotton pads without dripping water into the eyes