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Enlightenment ideas spread across Europe and prompted some rulers to make reforms


a humorous novel by Voltaire,1759, that slyly uses the tale to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of European society.

Joseph II

Hapsburg emperor in Austria, son and successor of Maria Theresa, disguised himself as a peasant to learn about problems people were facing "peasant emperor", abolished serfdom, sold property of clergy to build hospital, religious toleration to Protestants

Johann Sebastian Bach

German Lutheran, wrote complex and beautiful religious work for organ choirs

George Frederick Handel

another German born, spent most of life in England, wrote the Messiah

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

child prodigy, composer and performer, wrote operas, symphony, and religious music, musical genius played in salons

Daniel Defoe

wrote the Robinson Crusoe and exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island


restricting access to ideas and information, created by church and government to stop Enlightenment


informal social gatherings at which writer, artist, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas, originated in 1600s

Enlightened despot

absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change


grand, complex style of art that glorified huge battles or lives of saints, huge, colorful, and full of excitement


more toned down than baroque, personal, elegant, and charming

Frederick II (or the Great)

Prussia king, 1740-1786, made government more efficient, religious tolerance, had Voltaire develop the Prussia academy of science

Catherine II (or the Great)

Russian Empress, 1762, granted nobles charter of rights, criticized serfdom, was an enlightenment despot

Explain how each of the following affected the spread of new ideas: (a) censorship (b) salons.

Do to censorship writers began to disguise their opinions in works of writing in order to not have them burned, this allowed people to learn about new ideas and be able to spread them. The salons allowed people to meet and discuss ideas with each other spreading new ideas.

What were the goals of enlightened despots?

The goals of the enlightened despots was to bring political and social change.

How did the Enlightenment affect (a) arts and literature (b) the lives of the majority?

The arts evolved to meet changing taste. Courtly art and architecture were either in the Greek and Roman traditions or in baroque. Later game rococo. A new audience, the middle class, emerged with its own requirements. New kinds of musical entertainment evolved and literature developed new forms and wide audience. The lives of the majority did not change but the culture changed very slowly

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