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Patho Exam 2 Questions

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1. The most abundant cells in the blood are:
a. Leukocytes
b. Lymphocytes
c. Erythrocytes
d. Thrombocytes
c. Erythrocytes
A blood sample is analyzed in the lab, assuming a normal sample, which type of wbc accounts for the highest percentage?
Neutrophils
In addition to playing a role in heostasis, platelets have the ability to:
a.Stimulate vbone marrow production of erythrocytes
b.Release biochemical mediators of imflammation
c.Undergo cell division in response to bleeding
d.Activate a humoral response
b.Release biochemical mediators of imflammation
During an infection, lymph nodes become tender and enlarge because:
a.Macrophages are rapidly dividing
b.Edema accumulates within the fibrous capsule
c.Microorganisms are accumulating
d.The nodes are not functioning properly
a.Macrophages are rapidly dividing
A cell that can differentiate into any tissue type is referred to as:
a.Homatopoietic
b.Pluripotent
c.Blastocyst
d.Blastomere
b.Pluripotent
After erythrocytes have circulates for about 120 days they are removed by macrophages that are primarily in the:
a.Liver
b.Spleen
c.Appendix
d.Bone marrow
b.Spleen
In some anemias, erythrocytes are present in various sizes, this is referred to as:
a.Normocytosis
b.Isocytosis
c.Anisocytosis
d.Microcytosis
c.Anisocytosis
Erythrocytes that are ___ contain an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin.
a.Hyperchromic
b.Hypochromic
c.Macrocytic
d.Microcytic
b.Hypochromic
Which of the following explains why vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies cause aemia?
a.Stem cells are unable to differentiarte into erythrocytes
b.Red blood cells have malformed hemoglobin
c.Red blood cells have decreased O2 - carrying capacity
d.Red blood cells have a shorter life span
d.Red blood cells have a shorter life span
The Schilling Test for pernicious anemia involves:
The administration of radioactive cobalamin and the measurement of its excretion in its urine
A 35 year old female is diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. A decrease in which of the following is the most likely cause?
a.Ferritin
b.Gastric enzymes
c.Intrinsic factor
d.erythropoetin
c.Intrinsic factor
A student is driving to school when another driver nearly hits her. Her heart begins to beat harder and harder. Which of the following stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome is she experiencing?
a.Alarm stage
b.Stage of resistance
c.Adaptation
d.Exhaustion
a.Alarm stage
Exhaustion occurs if stress occurs and _____ is not successful.
a.Fight or flight
b.Alarm
c.Adaptation
d.Arousal
c.Adaptation
A 10- year old female arrives at a national spelling bee her heart begins beating harder and faster and she begins to sweat. What is occuring?
a.Anticipatory response
Coping is best defined as the process of :
a.Adjusting to disease
b.Managing stressful challenges
c.Mediating anger
b.Managing stressful challenges
The most important environmental risk factor for Cancer is:
a.exposure to UV radiation
b.Radon
c.Estrogen
d.Cigarette smoke
d.Cigarette smoke
Which feature is characteristic of malignant tumor?
a.Grows slowly
b.Has a well- defined capsule
c.Has a high mitotic index
d.Is well differentiated
c.Has a high mitotic index
The process by which a cell acquires new observable characteristics is:
a.Commitment
b.Differentiation
c.Commutation
d.Consanguinities
b.Differentiation
When a cancer cell loses differentiation, _____ has occurred.
a.Autonomy
b.Anaplasia
c.Plemorphic
d.Metastasis
b.Anaplasia
The best explanation of higher rates of cancer in older population is:
a.Aging cells are more susceptible to mutation
b.The development of cancer requires several mutations overtime
c.Older individuals have higher rates of tobacco use
d.The elderly show increased rates of apoptosis
b.The development of cancer requires several mutations overtime
The most common route of metastasis is through the:
a.Arteries
b.Body cavities
c.Lymphatics
d.Connective tissues
c.Lymphatics
Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
a.Alcohol
b.Steroids
c.Antihistamines
d.Antidepressants
a.Alcohol
The most frequent reported symptom of cancer in cancer treatment is:
a.Fatigue
b.Anorexia
c.Pain
d.Weight loss
a.Fatigue
To be curative, chemotherapy must eradicate:
a.All of the tumor cells
b.All of the cycling cells
c.All of the cells not cycling
d.Enough cancer cells so that the body's own defenses can kill any remaining cells
d.Enough cancer cells so that the body's own defenses can kill any remaining cells
The movement of blood into and out of the capillary beds of the lungs to the body organs and tissues is called:
a.Perfusion
b.Ventilation
c.Diffusion
d.Active transport
a.Perfusion
A 42-year old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he suffered a severe head injury. He dies shortly after the accident from loss of respiration. The area of the brain most likely involved is the:
a.Cerebral cortex
b.Thalamus
c.Basal ganglia
d.Brain stem
d.Brain stem
If an individual with respiratory difficulty were retaining too much carbon dioxide, which of the following compensatory responses would be initiated?
a.Increase in respiratory rate
b.Decrease in ventilation rate
c.Increase in tidal volume
a.Increase in respiratory rate
Surfactant facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by:
a.Decreasing thoracic compliance
b.Attracting
c.Decreasing surface tension
c.Decreasing surface tension
Carbon dioxide is mainly transported in the blood:
a.Attached to oxygen
b.Dissolved in RBC
c.Combined with albumin
d.in the form of Biocarbonate
d.in the form of Biocarbonate
A 20- year old male presents to his physician complaining of difficulty breathing when lying down. This condition is referred to as:
a.Dyspnea on exertion
b.Orthopnea
c.Apnea
d.Tachypnea
b.Orthopnea
A 30- year old received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing. This condition is referred to as:
a.Cheyenne stokes
b.Frank starling
c.Apnea
d.Orthopnea
a.Cheyenne stokes
A 65- year old with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breatrhing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucus membranes. This condition is referred to as:
a.Cyanosis
b.Hemoptysis
c.Hematemesis
d.Ischemia
a.Cyanosis
A 28- year old complains to his physician he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. This condition is referred to as:
Hemoptysis
A low ventilation perfusion ratio results in:
a.Increased dead space
b.Shunting
c.Alveolar collapse
d.Bronchoconstriction
b.Shunting
Leukocytosis can be defined a:
a.A normal leukocyte count
b.A high leukocyte count
c.A low leukocyte count
d.Another term for leucopenia
b.A high leukocyte count
A 35- year old male was diagnosed with hepatitis. Further tests reveal neutropenia which is a condition with a neutrophil count less than ___ per ml.
a.5000
b.2000
c.3000
d.10,000
b.2000
A woman has an increase in eiosinophils. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
a.Parasitic invasion and allergic reactions
b.Viral and bacterial infections
c.Stress and anxiety reactions
d.Fungal infections and delayed hypersensitivity
a.Parasitic invasion and allergic reactions
A man is diagnosed with mono. The most likely cause is:
a.Adenovirus
b.Epstein-Barr virus
c.Cytomegalovirus
b.Epstein-Barr virus
A woman is diagnosed with lympadenopathy. The most likely finding leading to this diagnosis is:
a.Small hard lymph nodes
b.Disordered lymph nodes
c.Non palpable non tender lymph nodes
d.Enlarged lymphnodes
d.Enlarged lymphnodes
A 35 year old male has enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and a mediastinal mass. Has hodkin lymphoma. Which of the following abnormal cells would be expected with this disease?
a.Merkel cell
b.Schwann cell
c.Reed- Sternberg cell
d.Kupffer cell
c.Reed- Sternberg cell
Thrombocytopenia is described as a platelet count below ________ platelets per cubic ml.
a.1,000,000
b.150,000
c.10,000
d.1000
b.150,000
Individuals with liver disease often suffer from coagulation disorders because:
a.The liver is often the site of platelet pooling
b.Clotting factors are produced in the liver
c.High levels of biliruben interfere with the clotting system
d.Treatment medications for liver failure cause
b.Clotting factors are produced in the liver
A 40 year old female develops disseminated intravascular coagulations (DIC). The most likely cause of this condition is:
a.Snake venom
b.Blood transfusions
c.Sepsis
d.Immune thrombocytopenic purpa (ITP)
c.Sepsis
In DIC, active bleeding occurs after intravascular clotting because:
a.Clotting factors are depleted
b.Inflammatory mediators are releases
c.Tissue factor is inactivated
a.Clotting factors are depleted
A boy is diagnosed with sickle cell anemia. Most likely inherited from:
a.His mother
b.His father
c.Both mother and father
d.None of the above
c.Both mother and father
Maternal fetal blood incompatibility exists in which of the following conditions?
a.Mother is RH positive & fetus is RH negative
b.Mother is RH negative and fetus is RH positive
c.Mother has type A blood and fetus has type O blood
d.Mother has type AB blood and fetus has type B blood
b.Mother is RH negative and fetus is RH positive
A 20-year old male is an acute pain. An ABG reveals decreased CO2 levels. Which of the following is the most likely cause?
A.Hyperventilation
B.Hypoventilation
C.Apnea
D.Cyanosis
A.Hyperventilation
The most common cause of pulmonary edema is:
a. Right heart failure
b. Left heart failure
c. Asthma
d. Lung cancer
b. Left heart failure
A 47 male is diagnosed with pulmonary edema. Which of the following would be expected of this condition?
a. Thick musus secretions
b. Pink frothy sputum
c. Hypocapnia
d. Wheezing
b. Pink frothy sputum
A 50 males presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. The most likely diagnosis would be:
a. Pleural effusion
b. Tesion pneumothorax
c. Open pneumothorac
d. Transudative pneumothorax
b. Tesion pneumothorax
42 year old female presents with dypnsea, rapid, shallow breathing, inspiratory crackles, decrease lung compliance and hypoxemia. Tests reveal a form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Diagnosis would be:
a. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
b. Sarcodosis
c. Postoperative respiratoty failure
d. Malignant respiratory failure
a. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Asthma is though the be caused by:
a. An autosomal recessive trait
b. Autoimmunity
c. Excessive use of antibiotics as a young child
d. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors
d. Interactions between genetic and environmental factors
53 male with a 20 year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. His airways are obstructed because of:
a. Excessive mucus production
b. Loss of elastic recoil
c. Infection and inflammation
d. Airway edema
b. Loss of elastic recoil
Pneumonia is caused by:
a. Use of anesthetic agents in surgery
b. Atelectasis
c. Chronic lung changes seen with angina
d. Viral or bacterial infections
d. Viral or bacterial infections
A man contracted TB during an outbreak. How did he get the disease?
a. Skin contact
b. Fecal oral contact
c. Airborne droplets
d. Contact
c. Airborne droplets
70 year old female is in the hospital for a pelvic fracture. She develops pulmonary thrombembolism. It is a result of occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by and embolus of a:
a. Fat
b. Air
c. Tissue fragmant
d. Blood clot
d. Blood clot
50 year old male who smokes has lung cancer. He was exposed to air pollution, asbestos, and radiation at work. Which of the following most likely had greatest impact on development of cancer?
a. Radiation
b. Cigarette smoke
c. Asbestos
d. Air pollution
b. Cigarette smoke