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Any Man Made MAterial object which survives from past. e.I. Buildings, art depictions, objects


Anything written, only way to enter the minds of those gone

Primary Documents

Written by people near or during events

Limitations of history

Historian's selection of data, incorrect interpretation of data, methodological fallacies, and reductionism, arbitrary nature of some data


Giving simple explanations for complex phenomena


Actions defined in a specific location in space and time. These have a clear beginning, end, and middle. A single death is an event. As is a war.


A series of events that produces a change gradually over time. The decline of a nation is a process usually. So is the spread of a plague or religion.


The period for a culture for which we have textual records. Different places become historic at different times.


The period for a culture before we have textual records, or before they start keeping records. Even in the last millennia there have been prehistoric cultures.


The time period during which civilizations first began to appear on the scene. (BEFORE 500 BC)


The time period during which civilizations really began to refine. The first global empire (Rome) basically starts this. (500AD-1500AD)


The time period of decline, during which civilizations experienced a slight pause as Rome and its empire collapsed. (1500AD)


The center for creating, preserving, and transmitting sacred symbols. A place where the divine is manifest.

guardian figures

Basically angels that guard the temple: cherubim, lions, sphinxes, etc.

astronomy/calendar and temples

Temples represented the center of time and space. Events were planned at the temple on a yearly/monthly cycle to represent the never-ending quality of time.


Temples are the absolute center for time, space, civilization, worship. Symbolized in various ways.


Walking in a circle around a holy place to symbolize the belief that it was the Center.

cosmic mountain

The idea of a temple as a great mountain in heaven. Eden, Sinai, Mount Zion, and the Mountain of the East are mentioned in the Bible.

site of creation

The belief that creation began at the temple: concept of the foundation-stone (the first stone lifted out of the Primordial Water) and of the waters of creation flowing from the temple. Represented in the Bible by "Mount" Eden.

sacred waters

The primordial substance from which god created life. Also the waters of life and purification. The Flood represented a kind of re-creation through water.

Tree of life

In the temple, this is represented by images, carvings, wooden columns, flowers, etc. Menorah symbolized a tree. we can eat of fruit of tree w/o killing it- eternal life

celestial temple

The temple in heaven after which earthly temples are a copy. This gave the pattern that Moses/Solomon/etc. would follow in building a temple.

order vs. chaos

The conflict between the order created by god in dividing the primordial waters and the chaos that prevailed before and seeks to prevail now.


A world contained within another. Cosmos means order. We study the world by the lens of a microcosm: Jerusalem.


The need to be physically and spiritually prepared in order to enter the presence of the divine. Priests would wash selves in mikvah or pool for immersion and change clothes


Creation Account from India, 700 BC. Speaks of One born of the power of Warmth out of Darkness. Speaks of creation through division prior to the Gods


A sacred story that deals with the relation between man and gods. Defines both where a community came from and why.


Creation/origens of the universe (cosmos).


A description of the creation of the universe (cosmos).

primordial water (Waters of Chaos)

First Water, or the most ancient and archaic water. A formless oozy liquid from which life is organized.

"unknown god"

The true creator of the universe who is generally behind the scenes and unknown to humans. Not one of the gods directly worshipped by polytheists.

creation by breath/spirit/wind

God's breath/spirit/wind upon the primordial water brought life. Possibly speech. Inspiration is the spirit coming in.

division into opposites

Primordial matter is given purpose through division: light/dark, waters above/below, water/land, etc.

theomachy-Marduk and the primordial combat myth

War of the gods at the foundation of creation. Decision of whether to keep creation or return to chaos. The new gods kill the older gods to get power. Marduk slays Tiamat and makes universe out of her corpse, builds temple

temple as site of creation

Foundations of the earth at the temple; the foundation stone; the temple as a cosmic center in time.


Forced to periodically move in order to obtain their food. Traveled from one place to another at regular times of the year.


Those who provided for themselves and their families/societies by the gathering of nuts, berries, plants and through hunting wild game. Usually moved and traveled to where food could be found easily.


Groups of people that would constantly be on the move, often for food reasons. Fx. Early American Indians would follow buffalo herds around the plains. like cowboys- travel with their herds and flocks


People who didn't travel. You would have to be an agriculturalist


Farmers-- leads to surplus which leads to formation of cities


dont have to make food?, >=5000 people


New stone age 7000-3000 BC Specialized stone tools, Complex burial practices. Domestication of plants and/or animals

Domestication plants

Caused farming(Planting and growing)

Domestication animals

Caused herding

Origins of Civilization

Not all societies developed into civilization. Sacred centers (temples) in arid river valleys. Arid= irrigation. Warfare! Strains on resources: lack of resource, droughts. Militarization dilemma. Wealth attracts predators: nomads, rival sedentarists. Military specialists, male domination.


A state of producing just enough food/resources to survive.

Agricultural Surplus

Extra food. This caused economic specialization. Such as making pots

Economic Specialization

Made pots and other things, not focussed of producing or finding food.

Temple City

Cities were built around sacred centers: life was different in the area, which is why a city could be built, therefore it was sacred. Generally arid river valleys: arid required irrigation, which required social organization and enabled surplus production, leading to specialization and trade.

Temple = Priests

Priests became specialists of the sacred, and were based around the temple. Led to high culture: writing, sciences, advanced architecture, art, literature, drama.

Palace = Kings & Warriors

Advancement and interactions with outsiders lead to strains on resources and thus to wars. Certain people begin to specialize in military strength (the warrior clan) and politics (the king, who was often also a warrior). They were based around the palace.


Centered on the Holy (Sacred)


Centered on the temple

Social Stratification

Surplus naturally led to specialists, trades, and general social differentiation. Priests and warriors were generally on the highest level of the social ladder.


Spirit leaders of ancient civilization. : A tribal specialist in spiritual things. Thought to have special power and authority. "Witch Doctor," "Medicine Man." Specialist in communication with and seeing the world of spirits.

Carmel Cave (Israel)

A Paleolithic-Neolithic period site in Israel. has things like animal bones and tools inside

Lascaux cave (France)

painting and engraving abstract symbols, hand imprints, flourished from 16,000 BC to 9,000 BC

relation of caves, temples & tombs

"Passage to underworld"

Paleolithic hunting ritual as sacrifice

Ritual that depicts how hunting went on-- more of a ritual than just an act

Temple of the Leopards

7th Millenium BC, Odva Valley in Negev, Israel. This is the temple where archeologists found rock formations on the ground in the patterns of animals

Tombs and ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)

Tomb-building indicates a belief in the afterlife. Abrahams family all buried in the same cave? Oldest surviving example.

burial mounds (Rujm al-Hiri)

Israel, 3000 BC. Used for communal gatherings and dinners (indicates religious belief in after life). Purpose is to help prevent animals from getting to body: tradition carried still in europe with rocks on graves.

upright/raised stone (maṣṣēbāh)

Used to mark the site of a spiritual manifestation. Were now places to worship.

aligned stones (Gezer)

painted white from graffiti, now used for pagan worship, stones stood upright in a line

stone circles (Gilgal)

Joshua erected 12 stones in a circle as the first Israelite sanctuary in Canaan.


A stone held up by other stones (like a roof). Stone top. Meant something was buried underneath-- formed tomb-markers


- Tombstone, as a covenant, for theophany.


manifestation of god


Major trade distributors, based in Anatolia; great ore resources, like silver, copper, lead and iron, had chariots, from bronze age


Major trade centers, operated vast trade under various empires; introduced first alphabetic writing system: 22 consonants that Greeks that expounded


signs depicting specific consonant or vowel sounds. First one developed by Phoenicia


Northern Kingdom of Hebrew tribes, conquered by assyria and not reformed


Southern Kingdom of Hebrew tribes, conquered (by Babylon, Zedekiah story from Judah) repeatedly, but reformed several times, currently dispersed, Jerusalem is capital in Judah


Believers in many gods. Caananite (Major until 1200 BC), Greek, Roman (Pagans) (Between 330 BC and 325 AD)


region: campared to Utah rather than specifically Provo (feel free to add to this)


alexander the great, eventually conquers persia


Believers in Israel's God (Yahweh) lasted (1200 BC - 70 AD)


Major players from 1200 BC to 586 BC, and then under the second temple from 516 BC to 70 AD)


Diaspora, Rabbinic Judaism (70 AD to 1897/1948), Modern Israel from 1897/1948-Present


Believers in Christ, lasted about 400 years in the area. Early form from 30-325 AD


Greek Orthodox Christians (from 325 to 638 AD)


Christian minorities (638-present)


From 1099-1187/1293


Important players from 638-1917 (about 1300 years)


660-750 from damascus


1250-1517 (from Egypt)


The patriarchal Age lasted from about 1850-1650 BC until the exile in Egypt., (ruled by priests)


Period when Israel was a province. (ruled by government)


The coastal land along Israel. Four main groups: Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Canaanites, Philistines. Last from 4000 to 300 BC

Phoenicia Metalwork

Phoenicians were such big traders because they needed tin to make bronze. They did some pretty great work with metals.


Trade throughout Mediterranean. Domination after collapse of Mycenaeans and Sea Peoples. Exploration: circumnavigation of Africa, West Africa, discovery of England, colonization (Carthage, Spain.)


A system of writing using a symbol representing a sound or syllable. The sounds would then be mixed to form complete words or phrases.


- (Ras Shamra)- Bronze Age city state. Destroyed by "Sea People" (phoenecians?) in 1200 BC. Most important source about the Canaanite religion. Site where many preserved clay tablets were discovered (Ugaritic Texts)

Jericho (Tower)

Temple tower and tomb site from 7th Millennium BC. Found a dozen or so plastered skulls. Oldest city in the world.

En Gedi (Temple)

Sacred mountain with a spring at the top from 4th Millennium BC. Sacred mountain, tree of life, and waters of life motifs all show up at this site. Also has a monumental gate, a raised altar, and a nearby copper smelting site.

Gezer (Standing Stones)

18th Century BC site in Israel. Aligned standing stones probably each representing a different god. near Jerusalem

Tel Qasile (Philistine Temple)

10th Century BC site in Israel. probably looks like Philistine temple destroyed by Samson. Tel means hill. Best preserved Philistine temple.

Middle Bronze

The Period from about 3500-1500 BC.

Execration Text

Mentions Jerusalem among a list of cities being cursed. From about 19th century BC. Earliest mention of Jerusalem. Like egyptian voodoo, write enemy names on doll and smash it with a hammer!!! :) good luck studying


(Wall of jerusalem) Made in middle stone age


King of Salem, known as king of peace. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek.


El elyon(the most high god) is the god of abraham, abraham payed tithing to melchizedek

Melchizedek's Temple?

Priest served at temple so he had a temple, would look like Arad temple


Just like melchizedeks temple in southern isreal

Psalm 110

Christ will be priest after order of Melchizedek, will fight for people

Hebrews 7

tells of abraham paying tithing to mel. after abr. "slaughter of kings"

JST Genesis 14

sodom and gomorrah take Lot, abraham fights them, wins, tithes to mel.

DSS 11Q13 Melchizedek

mentions that Christ (after priesthood of Melch.) will save his people, talking about coming of the Savior, 1st or 2nd??


Flooded anually, made farming possible.


Ruled by Pharoahs


Where dead pharoahs were laid to rest, religious texts about egyptian afterlife beliefs preserved

New Kingdom

The Age of imperialism (probably Moses time) from 1557-1060 BC,egyptian


Let egypt wilt away, wanted monothesism, his religion died with him. worshipped aten


Akhenaten moved the capital here; home of Amarna Tablets which are letters from canaanites, first letters from jerusalem

Ramses II

Fought hitite empire in syria, known as battle of kedesh, it was a draw. Known as the greatest builder, Pharaoh of the Exodus


The sun god who was the head god of Egypt, generally.

Pyramid Texts

Oldest surviving book. 2000 years older than moses


Foreign rulers from Syria. Conquer North Egypt. Possibly the time of Jacob. (Chariot Warriors)

Chariot Warfare

New style of warfare introduced by Hyksos. Egyptians eventually adopt it and retake their nation.


Woman pharoah who explored a lot. Mother of Thutmosis the 3rd? Claimed divine birth

Thutmosis III

Pharoah. Greatest conquerer of canaan and syria, hated his mom and broke the images of her face.

Book of the Dead

"Passing of the gaurdians on heaven Funeral rituals"-- Funerary literary text. A description of what happens to the soul after it dies, well preserved

Four Intellectual Revolutions

1. Writing (3000 B.C.E.) Egypt and Mesopetamia 2. Alphabet (1200 BCE). Canaan/Pheonicians. 3. Printing 850 bc (clay tablet/stamps) 1453 gutenberg press 4. Computer 1960. No cost, too much info

Sacred Way

Road to temple

Temenos Wall

enclosed wall around sacred space (Temple) sometimes used for protection

Boundary Markers

Pillars, standing stones, obelisk. Marked holy spot within temenos wall, taller than wall

Sacred Waters

1. The deep, waters of creation 2. Fertility/Life 3. Purification


pylon (transition), had guardian figures to keep out unworthy


The world (place of sacrifice)

Altar( blood Sacrifice)

A blood sacrifice is a type of offering. It is an outer sacrifice. wine, bread, incense done inside holy place

Columned Hall

Called Hypostyle Hall. Originally the columns were of wood to represent trees as the garden of the gods. When transitioned to stone columns, the tree motifs were carved in to the stone.


The idea of being physical and ritually clean in order to enter gods presence.

Sacred Robes=Transition

Another symbolic transition from the profane world to the temple.

Holy of Holies

Most holy room. Met god here. This was the most restricted access room. had image or symbol of god

Presentation to the Gods

This theme appears in a lot of art: a person is brought before the gods

Embracing the Gods

This was a specific type of presentation scene. The God welcomes the person with a sacred embrace.


The priests would set an image of the god in a barque and take it throughout the city.


Source of information about religion. Sacred structures indicate belief systems.

Tombs and ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)

Tombs indicate belief in the afterlife and sacredness of human life.


images of gods and rituals. Aniconism leads to little art making a religion harder to understand by these means.


These can tell us directly what a culture believed and how they represented these beliefs in action.


Denounced by Bible: worship only Yahweh


Denounced by Bible: no images of Yahweh

fertility cult

Denounced by Bible. These practices included rituals for rain/harvest/animals/human fertility. Often involved sex with priests/priestesses. Promoted Sexual promiscuity. (worship of asherah)


The practice of combining or equating gods from various cultures to create a unified system. Like saying Zeus and Jupiter are the same god with different names, or that Ba'al is the god for Canaanites, but Yahweh is his counterpart for Israelites.


The Creator God of the Canaanites, same name used for God in the Bible.


Primary God of the Canaanites. Storms and War.


Consort of El, mother of the gods, fertility goddess. specifically mentioned in Bible.

Human Sacrifice

Denounced by Bible, but paradoxically. The Binding of Isaac.

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