265 terms

Hist 201 Jerusalem

Any Man Made MAterial object which survives from past. e.I. Buildings, art depictions, objects
Anything written, only way to enter the minds of those gone
Primary Documents
Written by people near or during events
Limitations of history
Historian's selection of data, incorrect interpretation of data, methodological fallacies, and reductionism, arbitrary nature of some data
Giving simple explanations for complex phenomena
Actions defined in a specific location in space and time. These have a clear beginning, end, and middle. A single death is an event. As is a war.
A series of events that produces a change gradually over time. The decline of a nation is a process usually. So is the spread of a plague or religion.
The period for a culture for which we have textual records. Different places become historic at different times.
The period for a culture before we have textual records, or before they start keeping records. Even in the last millennia there have been prehistoric cultures.
The time period during which civilizations first began to appear on the scene. (BEFORE 500 BC)
The time period during which civilizations really began to refine. The first global empire (Rome) basically starts this. (500AD-1500AD)
The time period of decline, during which civilizations experienced a slight pause as Rome and its empire collapsed. (1500AD)
The center for creating, preserving, and transmitting sacred symbols. A place where the divine is manifest.
guardian figures
Basically angels that guard the temple: cherubim, lions, sphinxes, etc.
astronomy/calendar and temples
Temples represented the center of time and space. Events were planned at the temple on a yearly/monthly cycle to represent the never-ending quality of time.
Temples are the absolute center for time, space, civilization, worship. Symbolized in various ways.
Walking in a circle around a holy place to symbolize the belief that it was the Center.
cosmic mountain
The idea of a temple as a great mountain in heaven. Eden, Sinai, Mount Zion, and the Mountain of the East are mentioned in the Bible.
site of creation
The belief that creation began at the temple: concept of the foundation-stone (the first stone lifted out of the Primordial Water) and of the waters of creation flowing from the temple. Represented in the Bible by "Mount" Eden.
sacred waters
The primordial substance from which god created life. Also the waters of life and purification. The Flood represented a kind of re-creation through water.
Tree of life
In the temple, this is represented by images, carvings, wooden columns, flowers, etc. Menorah symbolized a tree. we can eat of fruit of tree w/o killing it- eternal life
celestial temple
The temple in heaven after which earthly temples are a copy. This gave the pattern that Moses/Solomon/etc. would follow in building a temple.
order vs. chaos
The conflict between the order created by god in dividing the primordial waters and the chaos that prevailed before and seeks to prevail now.
A world contained within another. Cosmos means order. We study the world by the lens of a microcosm: Jerusalem.
The need to be physically and spiritually prepared in order to enter the presence of the divine. Priests would wash selves in mikvah or pool for immersion and change clothes
Creation Account from India, 700 BC. Speaks of One born of the power of Warmth out of Darkness. Speaks of creation through division prior to the Gods
A sacred story that deals with the relation between man and gods. Defines both where a community came from and why.
Creation/origens of the universe (cosmos).
A description of the creation of the universe (cosmos).
primordial water (Waters of Chaos)
First Water, or the most ancient and archaic water. A formless oozy liquid from which life is organized.
"unknown god"
The true creator of the universe who is generally behind the scenes and unknown to humans. Not one of the gods directly worshipped by polytheists.
creation by breath/spirit/wind
God's breath/spirit/wind upon the primordial water brought life. Possibly speech. Inspiration is the spirit coming in.
division into opposites
Primordial matter is given purpose through division: light/dark, waters above/below, water/land, etc.
theomachy-Marduk and the primordial combat myth
War of the gods at the foundation of creation. Decision of whether to keep creation or return to chaos. The new gods kill the older gods to get power. Marduk slays Tiamat and makes universe out of her corpse, builds temple
temple as site of creation
Foundations of the earth at the temple; the foundation stone; the temple as a cosmic center in time.
Forced to periodically move in order to obtain their food. Traveled from one place to another at regular times of the year.
Those who provided for themselves and their families/societies by the gathering of nuts, berries, plants and through hunting wild game. Usually moved and traveled to where food could be found easily.
Groups of people that would constantly be on the move, often for food reasons. Fx. Early American Indians would follow buffalo herds around the plains. like cowboys- travel with their herds and flocks
People who didn't travel. You would have to be an agriculturalist
Farmers-- leads to surplus which leads to formation of cities
dont have to make food?, >=5000 people
New stone age 7000-3000 BC Specialized stone tools, Complex burial practices. Domestication of plants and/or animals
Domestication plants
Caused farming(Planting and growing)
Domestication animals
Caused herding
Origins of Civilization
Not all societies developed into civilization. Sacred centers (temples) in arid river valleys. Arid= irrigation. Warfare! Strains on resources: lack of resource, droughts. Militarization dilemma. Wealth attracts predators: nomads, rival sedentarists. Military specialists, male domination.
A state of producing just enough food/resources to survive.
Agricultural Surplus
Extra food. This caused economic specialization. Such as making pots
Economic Specialization
Made pots and other things, not focussed of producing or finding food.
Temple City
Cities were built around sacred centers: life was different in the area, which is why a city could be built, therefore it was sacred. Generally arid river valleys: arid required irrigation, which required social organization and enabled surplus production, leading to specialization and trade.
Temple = Priests
Priests became specialists of the sacred, and were based around the temple. Led to high culture: writing, sciences, advanced architecture, art, literature, drama.
Palace = Kings & Warriors
Advancement and interactions with outsiders lead to strains on resources and thus to wars. Certain people begin to specialize in military strength (the warrior clan) and politics (the king, who was often also a warrior). They were based around the palace.
Centered on the Holy (Sacred)
Centered on the temple
Social Stratification
Surplus naturally led to specialists, trades, and general social differentiation. Priests and warriors were generally on the highest level of the social ladder.
Spirit leaders of ancient civilization. : A tribal specialist in spiritual things. Thought to have special power and authority. "Witch Doctor," "Medicine Man." Specialist in communication with and seeing the world of spirits.
Carmel Cave (Israel)
A Paleolithic-Neolithic period site in Israel. has things like animal bones and tools inside
Lascaux cave (France)
painting and engraving abstract symbols, hand imprints, flourished from 16,000 BC to 9,000 BC
relation of caves, temples & tombs
"Passage to underworld"
Paleolithic hunting ritual as sacrifice
Ritual that depicts how hunting went on-- more of a ritual than just an act
Temple of the Leopards
7th Millenium BC, Odva Valley in Negev, Israel. This is the temple where archeologists found rock formations on the ground in the patterns of animals
Tombs and ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)
Tomb-building indicates a belief in the afterlife. Abrahams family all buried in the same cave? Oldest surviving example.
burial mounds (Rujm al-Hiri)
Israel, 3000 BC. Used for communal gatherings and dinners (indicates religious belief in after life). Purpose is to help prevent animals from getting to body: tradition carried still in europe with rocks on graves.
upright/raised stone (maṣṣēbāh)
Used to mark the site of a spiritual manifestation. Were now places to worship.
aligned stones (Gezer)
painted white from graffiti, now used for pagan worship, stones stood upright in a line
stone circles (Gilgal)
Joshua erected 12 stones in a circle as the first Israelite sanctuary in Canaan.
A stone held up by other stones (like a roof). Stone top. Meant something was buried underneath-- formed tomb-markers
- Tombstone, as a covenant, for theophany.
manifestation of god
Major trade distributors, based in Anatolia; great ore resources, like silver, copper, lead and iron, had chariots, from bronze age
Major trade centers, operated vast trade under various empires; introduced first alphabetic writing system: 22 consonants that Greeks that expounded
signs depicting specific consonant or vowel sounds. First one developed by Phoenicia
Northern Kingdom of Hebrew tribes, conquered by assyria and not reformed
Southern Kingdom of Hebrew tribes, conquered (by Babylon, Zedekiah story from Judah) repeatedly, but reformed several times, currently dispersed, Jerusalem is capital in Judah
Believers in many gods. Caananite (Major until 1200 BC), Greek, Roman (Pagans) (Between 330 BC and 325 AD)
region: campared to Utah rather than specifically Provo (feel free to add to this)
alexander the great, eventually conquers persia
Believers in Israel's God (Yahweh) lasted (1200 BC - 70 AD)
Major players from 1200 BC to 586 BC, and then under the second temple from 516 BC to 70 AD)
Diaspora, Rabbinic Judaism (70 AD to 1897/1948), Modern Israel from 1897/1948-Present
Believers in Christ, lasted about 400 years in the area. Early form from 30-325 AD
Greek Orthodox Christians (from 325 to 638 AD)
Christian minorities (638-present)
From 1099-1187/1293
Important players from 638-1917 (about 1300 years)
660-750 from damascus
1250-1517 (from Egypt)
The patriarchal Age lasted from about 1850-1650 BC until the exile in Egypt., (ruled by priests)
Period when Israel was a province. (ruled by government)
The coastal land along Israel. Four main groups: Phoenicians, Aramaeans, Canaanites, Philistines. Last from 4000 to 300 BC
Phoenicia Metalwork
Phoenicians were such big traders because they needed tin to make bronze. They did some pretty great work with metals.
Trade throughout Mediterranean. Domination after collapse of Mycenaeans and Sea Peoples. Exploration: circumnavigation of Africa, West Africa, discovery of England, colonization (Carthage, Spain.)
A system of writing using a symbol representing a sound or syllable. The sounds would then be mixed to form complete words or phrases.
- (Ras Shamra)- Bronze Age city state. Destroyed by "Sea People" (phoenecians?) in 1200 BC. Most important source about the Canaanite religion. Site where many preserved clay tablets were discovered (Ugaritic Texts)
Jericho (Tower)
Temple tower and tomb site from 7th Millennium BC. Found a dozen or so plastered skulls. Oldest city in the world.
En Gedi (Temple)
Sacred mountain with a spring at the top from 4th Millennium BC. Sacred mountain, tree of life, and waters of life motifs all show up at this site. Also has a monumental gate, a raised altar, and a nearby copper smelting site.
Gezer (Standing Stones)
18th Century BC site in Israel. Aligned standing stones probably each representing a different god. near Jerusalem
Tel Qasile (Philistine Temple)
10th Century BC site in Israel. probably looks like Philistine temple destroyed by Samson. Tel means hill. Best preserved Philistine temple.
Middle Bronze
The Period from about 3500-1500 BC.
Execration Text
Mentions Jerusalem among a list of cities being cursed. From about 19th century BC. Earliest mention of Jerusalem. Like egyptian voodoo, write enemy names on doll and smash it with a hammer!!! :) good luck studying
(Wall of jerusalem) Made in middle stone age
King of Salem, known as king of peace. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek.
El elyon(the most high god) is the god of abraham, abraham payed tithing to melchizedek
Melchizedek's Temple?
Priest served at temple so he had a temple, would look like Arad temple
Just like melchizedeks temple in southern isreal
Psalm 110
Christ will be priest after order of Melchizedek, will fight for people
Hebrews 7
tells of abraham paying tithing to mel. after abr. "slaughter of kings"
JST Genesis 14
sodom and gomorrah take Lot, abraham fights them, wins, tithes to mel.
DSS 11Q13 Melchizedek
mentions that Christ (after priesthood of Melch.) will save his people, talking about coming of the Savior, 1st or 2nd??
Flooded anually, made farming possible.
Ruled by Pharoahs
Where dead pharoahs were laid to rest, religious texts about egyptian afterlife beliefs preserved
New Kingdom
The Age of imperialism (probably Moses time) from 1557-1060 BC,egyptian
Let egypt wilt away, wanted monothesism, his religion died with him. worshipped aten
Akhenaten moved the capital here; home of Amarna Tablets which are letters from canaanites, first letters from jerusalem
Ramses II
Fought hitite empire in syria, known as battle of kedesh, it was a draw. Known as the greatest builder, Pharaoh of the Exodus
The sun god who was the head god of Egypt, generally.
Pyramid Texts
Oldest surviving book. 2000 years older than moses
Foreign rulers from Syria. Conquer North Egypt. Possibly the time of Jacob. (Chariot Warriors)
Chariot Warfare
New style of warfare introduced by Hyksos. Egyptians eventually adopt it and retake their nation.
Woman pharoah who explored a lot. Mother of Thutmosis the 3rd? Claimed divine birth
Thutmosis III
Pharoah. Greatest conquerer of canaan and syria, hated his mom and broke the images of her face.
Book of the Dead
"Passing of the gaurdians on heaven Funeral rituals"-- Funerary literary text. A description of what happens to the soul after it dies, well preserved
Four Intellectual Revolutions
1. Writing (3000 B.C.E.) Egypt and Mesopetamia 2. Alphabet (1200 BCE). Canaan/Pheonicians. 3. Printing 850 bc (clay tablet/stamps) 1453 gutenberg press 4. Computer 1960. No cost, too much info
Sacred Way
Road to temple
Temenos Wall
enclosed wall around sacred space (Temple) sometimes used for protection
Boundary Markers
Pillars, standing stones, obelisk. Marked holy spot within temenos wall, taller than wall
Sacred Waters
1. The deep, waters of creation 2. Fertility/Life 3. Purification
pylon (transition), had guardian figures to keep out unworthy
The world (place of sacrifice)
Altar( blood Sacrifice)
A blood sacrifice is a type of offering. It is an outer sacrifice. wine, bread, incense done inside holy place
Columned Hall
Called Hypostyle Hall. Originally the columns were of wood to represent trees as the garden of the gods. When transitioned to stone columns, the tree motifs were carved in to the stone.
The idea of being physical and ritually clean in order to enter gods presence.
Sacred Robes=Transition
Another symbolic transition from the profane world to the temple.
Holy of Holies
Most holy room. Met god here. This was the most restricted access room. had image or symbol of god
Presentation to the Gods
This theme appears in a lot of art: a person is brought before the gods
Embracing the Gods
This was a specific type of presentation scene. The God welcomes the person with a sacred embrace.
The priests would set an image of the god in a barque and take it throughout the city.
Source of information about religion. Sacred structures indicate belief systems.
Tombs and ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)
Tombs indicate belief in the afterlife and sacredness of human life.
images of gods and rituals. Aniconism leads to little art making a religion harder to understand by these means.
These can tell us directly what a culture believed and how they represented these beliefs in action.
Denounced by Bible: worship only Yahweh
Denounced by Bible: no images of Yahweh
fertility cult
Denounced by Bible. These practices included rituals for rain/harvest/animals/human fertility. Often involved sex with priests/priestesses. Promoted Sexual promiscuity. (worship of asherah)
The practice of combining or equating gods from various cultures to create a unified system. Like saying Zeus and Jupiter are the same god with different names, or that Ba'al is the god for Canaanites, but Yahweh is his counterpart for Israelites.
The Creator God of the Canaanites, same name used for God in the Bible.
Primary God of the Canaanites. Storms and War.
Consort of El, mother of the gods, fertility goddess. specifically mentioned in Bible.
Human Sacrifice
Denounced by Bible, but paradoxically. The Binding of Isaac.
Thutmoses III
Conquered Jerusalem about 1457. Lived 1475 to 1425.
Amarna Tablets
A series of diplomatic letters from Egyptian vassals to Pharaoh around 1360-1340. Written in Akkadian. 6 of these were from Jerusalem.
From Bible chronology: 480 years before Solomon, so 1440 BC. Unless 480 is symbol for 12 generations of only 25 years, to make 1260 BC. 1260 historically correct
Ramesses II
Possibly the Pharaoh of the Exodus. His capital corresponds to the location indicated by the Bible.
Ramses Successor (his second son). Wrote "Israel Stele." He mentions the people of Israel in it but not the land. Claims that he has destroyed Israelites.
These people inhabited Jerusalem when Joshua arrived. They weren't driven out and remained until at least the time of David.
Adoni- Zedek
The King of Jerusalem during Joshua's invasion. defeated and killed by Joshua, but the city isn't conquered.
Unique to the time. Supposed to worship only one god.
Used syncretism early on, but later went very non-syncretistic.
Lived approximately 1230-1190. Led the Exodus.
Lived approximately 1190-1150. Led the conquest of Canaan.
Lasted from about 1150-1020. The word meant warrior/administrator/prophet/judge. The position was temporary and leaders arose as necessary. There may have been simultaneous judges but in different tribes.
United Monarchy
1020-922. Israel became a major power in Syria/Canaan. Formed by David, maintained under Solomon. Dynastic marriages lead to cultic corruption and a succession crisis at Solomon's death.
Divided Monarchy
922-721. Judah (south) led by House of David. Israel (north) led by plotters, murderers and coups. Both kingdoms are weak in politics and military.
Various set-ups: dynastic; charismatic designation, prophetic designation, or God as true King. The last view partly motivates Samuel's discourse on the evils of a king.
Israel is a major trader under Solomon, and the northern kingdom stays more important, richer, and more powerful than the south until conquered.
Capital of Israel (northern kingdom), mixed marriages, samaritans
Capital of Judah (southern kingdom), "pure Jews"
Holy of Holies
had both doors and a veil
Tell Tayinat
Archaeological site that contains the best match to Solomon's temple
city with best preserved middle bronze temple. Reflect general layout of Melchezidek's temple
king of israel when sennacherib of assyria came to conquer and his armies were turned away prob. by a plague, contemp. of Isaiah
reform, fought necho against prophecy
David's preparation
Though not allowed to build the temple, David gathered all the supplies, wrote up the design, and purchased the site of the future temple.
The tribe allowed to hold the priesthood. Regular Levites would assist the priests at the temple. They would care for the courts, cleaning and doing any necessary work.
plan = tabnît
David received the plan for the temple by inspiration.
Solomon at Gibeon
Solomon went and offered sacrifice to the Lord here. He offered a thousand burnt offering upon that altar. God grants him wish, Solomon asks for wisdom.
Purpose of ancient temples
A place to make offerings to god. Offerings included sacrifice, but also incense, treasure, bread, and wine. Solomon's temple was a house of the "name of the LORD".
Hiram of Tyre
Ally of Solomon. He sent skilled worker to help build the temple. One of his daughters married Solomon. big in trade
A two-way promise with God. With the temple, we covenant to walk in gods statutes, obey his ordinances, and keep all his commandments by walking in them. He promises to establish his promise with us. He will dwell in the midst of the people and not forsake them.
Set up the pillars Jachin and Boaz at the vestibule of the temple.
Ark of the Covenant
The symbol of God's covenant with Israel. It was brought into the temple's Holy of Holies. Symbolic of God's presence.
Cloud Theophany
The presence of God represented by His filling the temple with a cloud. Also happened on Mount Sinai and the Mount of Transfiguration.
Lived 1000-962. Conquered Jerusalem and all neighboring states, made them vassals. Made preparation for the temple. Reign ended in Absalom's rebellion.
Warren's Shaft
Possibly the shaft used by Joab in conquering Jerusalem.
Royal Tombs
David was buried "in the city". Dead bodies were ritually unclean, so their presence in a city would cause problems. We think we found the tombs in a rock quarry.
Lived 961-922. Given prophetic wisdom. Built the temple. No conquering wars. Great wealth and power and political influence.
Usurped the kingdom of Israel from Rehoboam, the heir to the kingdom, and who then ruled Judah only. Jeroboam ruled israel and lead to idolatry
Invaded and conquered Israel. Plundered temple and led 10 tribes away. ally to jeroboam
Outsider prophet. Taught fiercely the idea of monotheism.
745-700. Righteous king same time as Isaiah. Saved Jerusalem from Assyrian siege of 701 BC. Samaria fell during his time.
Hezekiah's Tunnel
Built a tunnel for the water to come deeper into the city.
Hezekiah's Wall
Reinforced the city walls as a defense.
697/687-642. Longest reign(55 years). vassal of Assyria. Reversed the reforms of Hezekiah even to perform child sacrifice. Possibly repented.
Discovered the Book of the Law in the temple. Reformed the temple cult, but died in battle with Necho of Egypt.
Book of the Law
Possibly Deuteronomy. A book found in the temple that led to major religious reforms.
Son of the king (Zedekiah according to B.o.M.). Named Malchiah in KJV. Called son of Hammelech, but should be son of the king. mentioned in BOM, contemp. of Lehi
Fall of Jerusalem
587-586. Fell to Babylon. Some fled to Egypt.
Lachish Letters
Letters from soldiers at Lachish, written upon broken pots.
Northeast Mesopotamia, upper Tigris valley, before 2000 BC, various periods of regional power,old and middle Assyrian periods. Phase I (934-884)-Assyria established as region power;Phase II (883-824)-1st period of expansion into Syria,Mesopotamia & Babylon;Phase III (824-774)-"Interval":Civil War and Weakness;lost of most conquered provinces;Phase IV (744-612)-The Empire-Assyria conquers the entire Near East.
People with close cultural and linguistic ties to Babylonia
Assyrian militarism and imperialism
Powerful army. Militarized against a long history of raids by outsiders. Experts in war. Religious ideology of conquest under Assur. Switch to iron enabled cheaper weapons and thus a larger army, a specialized army, and they also switched to horseback.
Assyrian reliefs (carved panels)
Had a high culture. The destruction of the capitals in 610 preserved it at its peak of splendor.
Library of Ashurbanipal
An attempt to collect all known books, with 20,000-30,000 tablets. We have 5000 translated to make 1500 texts. These were clay tablets, but the fire preserved them as brick-like.
Aššur (Asshur)
The patron god of Assyria. A war god, syncretized with Marduk and other Babylonian gods. The king was his high priest, the representative of Assur on earth.
A system of writing used by Mesopotamians and Syrians. Based on wedges. Similar idea to heiroglyphs but different execution. Adopted by many cultures.
Fall of Israel
in 720, everyone revolts during a succession crisis. When the next king reconquers, he burns Israel's capital to the ground. Another king does the same thing to Judah in 701. Jerusalem is saved, but forced to pay tribute.
A group forced to pay tribute and swear loyalty to the superior army and its lord. Often required allegiance to their god as well. Locals may be made "sub" kings, generally chosen by the conquering group.
A system of sending rebellious or troublesome citizens to different parts of the nation and replacing them with other people from around the nation. This weakened the morale of the people in the rebellious area by dividing them amongst each other. This policy caused most of the cultures in the area to blend together, with the exception of Israel.
They reconquer what was basically the Assyrian empire before. They have a similar religion, language and are from nearly the same place as Assyria, but they are distinct.
Nebuchadnezzar II
king , judah tries to revolt with egypt and he conquers the (king zedekiah) and deports, contemp. of daniel
Destruction of Judah and Jerusalem
Around 587 Zedekiah plans a rebellion against Babylon, with a promise of help from Egypt. The offer falls through and Babylon besieges, takes and ultimately destroys the city and the temple, and deports the citizens to Babylon.
Each city in the region acted as a separate state, though sometimes they would conquer neighbors and create empires, such as with Babylon.
The worship of many gods, with each god ruling different aspects of nature and society. People worshipped the god of what they needed.
Polytheists generally established images to represent the various gods.
One way to deal with foreign gods: combine them into your gods, or equate them as being manifestations of your god in that place.
The writing system that used wedged styluses to write on (clay) tablets. Used throughout Mesopotamia and Syria. Could use gold plates too.
One of the primary gods of the Canaanites. God of storms and war.
The consort of Baal. Often combined with worship of Yahweh as Baal.
Tree of Life
Symbol used in various cultures. Needs to be contextualized in order to be understood correctly. Trees provide food without dying, hence the relation to life.
presentation (investiture) scene
gives king power, authority, by giving him rod.
Taking the Hand of Baal
King takes hand of God and makes covenant- consistent through the Middle East.
Babylonian map of the world -- centered on the sacred
Gudea of Lagash
Built the temple of Gudea. Gathered material from around the world to make this temple a microcosm of the world. design of temple was revealed to him through book "tablets of destiny"
Babylonian king who received law from god
Hammurabi's Law Code
The Law that Hammurabi received. Very similar to Moses and the stone tablets. Has lines like "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" concept that God creates order in temple through revealing laws
Basically a stepped pyramid style temple structure. Not a pyramid because those were tombs. maybe this is what Jacob saw in Jacob's ladder, and maybe tower of babel
Conquest of Judah
Assyria launches campaign against Judah 702-701 BC. Destroys most everything except Jerusalem. 100 years after Lachish is taken by Assyria, Jerusalem is taken by Babylon.
Siege of Lachish {702} (reliefs)
Attack from Assyria. They take the city. Shows war-machines, fight techniques, trophies, and Jews being taken captive.
Pharaoh of Egypt who went to fight the Assyrians, sent letter to Josiah to not interfere with his fight, Josiah interferes anyway and is killed.
A Vassal king that rules for a decade or so under Babylon. Named as the king of Jerusalem in the Book of Mormon. leads rebelion with egypt against babylon, fails, watches sons killed
Area G
remember the pictures of toilets? just shows what a city would look like
Bullae (seals), Baruch
You would wrap a string around something, then put clay over the string and stamp it with a stone inscribed with the name of the owner. This would seal the item because you couldn't open it with the seal holding the string together.
These are all outside the wall, except for the royal tombs, because dead bodies were impure. You buried multiple times in a given tomb. The body goes on a ledge to decay, and is then put into a box so the ledge can be used again.
Lachish letters
Letters written on broken pots during the Babylonian war (588 BC)
Refugees (Egypt and Arabia)
Some of the people of Jerusalem were not taken captive. Some flee to Egypt and Arabia. Lehi and co flee to America.
has vision, sees abominations of "holy men" in temple, sees destruction of Israel and presence of God leaving temple to come be with refugees in babylon
Prophet during the siege., told jehoiakim not to fight babylon, tells people they can worship in foreign land, contemp of lehi
A term referring to a language group, having similar vocabulary and grammar. This is a very ancient language group. Spreads from India to Europe. These brought similar religions as well.
mounted (horse) archery
Excellent warriors. Loved horses. Nomads. Had bronze weapons.
Early tribal confederations. Lived in Media and there established a kingdom. They were conquered by Cyrus
lead persian revolt against medes, known for letting all people go back to homelands
revolted from assyrians with everyone else, come off conquerer.
known for making imperial government, made a central court of viceroys but left laws to local leadership, zoroastrian king
The religion taught by Zarathushtra. Spreads by King Darius' patronage. Required moral purity: right thoughts, right words, right deeds. One's moral choices affect the cosmological balance. Care for creation since it was made by God. No physical/spiritual dualism.
Lived in Afghanistan area. Priest worshipping the old Iranian gods. He has a vision of a "true God" Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord) who said the old gods were demons and to preach monotheism.
The priestly caste of India (Zoroastrians). Thought to be the wise men who visited baby Jesus
Ahura Mazda
The "Wise Lord" who visited Zarathushtra.
Not just monotheism, but believes in two things: an all-powerful perfect God balanced by an evil twin. Ahura Mazda vs. Angra Mainyu.
Towers of Silence
What to do with a dead body? Graves will pollute earth or water. Burning pollutes air. So instead intentionally expose the dead on these towers so the vultures come eat and keep creation pure.
Fire Altar/Temple
Burned incense/oil to please gods. Fire that never goes out.
Bible of the Zoroastrians
Persian capital, palace and temple complex. Built by Darius and Xerxes.
pairidaeza (paradise)
Persian word for garden
10,000 soilders that protected the king, as they would die, they were replaced, always 10,000
Jewish priest leader who was contemporary of Xerxes. He was a Babylonian exile who led a group to Jerusalem where he reformed Judaism and enforced observance of the Torah
about same time as ezra, both these prophets were alive as people became more hierocentric and less naeocentric
greatest conqueror, shifted from centralized gvmt. to localized
Hellenized Jewish priest and historian. Recorded the history of the Jews.
Cyrus Cylinder
Small clay cylinder, that contains carvings of Cyrus's biography
Name of province of Jerusalem-- means "Jew"
Rebuilding Temple
prophets: haggai, zechariah, leader: zerubbabel of house of David, dedicated in 515 bc, no more arch of covenant
Elephantine Papyri
Same as Elephantine Letters.
Isaiah's prophecy of Cyrus
Isaiah 44-45 says cyrus will subdue many nations and let people return and build temple
Zoroastrian Messiah
Zarathushtra's Prophecy of a Messiah says "We worship mighty Khvarenah, which will accompany the victorious Saoshyant (Messiah) and also his other comrades, so that he may make the world wonderful. . . . He (Saoshyant) will gaze with eyes of wisdom, he will behold all creation, he will gaze with eyes of sacrifice on the whole material world, and make it undying. Thinking well, speaking well, acting well, upholding the Good Religion (Zoroastrianism), they will utter no false words with their tongues... They will conquer the evil hideous dark Drug (Lie = the Devil)." The Zoroastrian Messiah will come to initiate the final renovation of the world and will make it wonderful.
Elephantine Letters
letter of aristeas, asking about temple building materials- elephantine were jewish mercenaries, proves that ancient jews had more than one temple too