40 terms

American Gov. Test 2

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What is the leadership structure of the House and Senate?
The House of Representatives is meant to be "the people's house," or the part of government most responsive to public opinion. Each state's representation in the House is based on population, with each state getting at least one member.

Membership House 435

To keep them responsive to the people, HOUSE members face reelection every two years, and the entire body is elected at the same time. A person must be twenty-five years old and a resident of the state he or she represents in order to run for a seat in the House.
What are the steps to a bill becoming a law?
1: A Bill Born - Senate reads House Hopper
2: Committee Action - bill assigned
3: Subcommittee - reports bill back to floor
4: Congressional Calendar - debate scheduled
5: Committee debates BILL
6: Voting - Win = ACT
7: Referral to Other Chamber
8: Conference Committee Action - clean
9: Final Action - President
10: Overriding a Veto with 2/3 - Congress
Why is the House Rules Committee so important
The Rules Committee has significant power to determine which bills will be brought to the floor of the House for consideration and whether amendments will be allowed on a bill when it is
What are the various types of "rules" that the Rules committee puts on bills.
Open rules - permit the offering of any amendment that otherwise complies with House rules, and allows debate under the 5-minute rule.

Modified-Open rules - operate much like an open rule, but have some restriction on the "universe" of amendments, either through a pre-printing requirement or an overall time limit on consideration of amendments.

Structured rules - specify that only certain amendments may be considered and specify the time for debate.

Closed rules - effectively eliminate the opportunity to consider amendments, other than those reported by the committee reporting the bill.
What are some unique features of the Senate, e.g., the filibuster, unanimous consent rules, etc.?
Gives advice/consent
Fili buster
Unamious Consent Rule
What does the conference committee do?
Conference committees resolve differences between the two chambers. A conference committee is a committee of the Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
What influences congressmen's voting decisions?
P I P E C (that's how you remember it)

I NFO GATHERING Research Svv. & Special Int.
C ONSTITUENCY INTEREST - town hall meeting
E XPERT OPINION - some are colleagues
P OLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS - party's position
P ERSONAL JUDGEMENT - core beliefs-abortion
What is a rider?
In legislative procedure, a rider is an additional provision added to a bill or other measure under the consideration by a legislature, having little connection with the subject matter of the bill.
What are the roles played by the president?
1. Chief of State...symbolic leader
2. Chief Executive...executes laws & appoints
3. Chief Diplomat...nego with countries
4. Commander-In-Chief...runs armed forces
5. Chief Legislator...signs or vetos legislation
6. Chief of Party...raise $ & elect
7. Chief Guardian of the Economy
Which roles are more "powerful"?
4. Commander In Chief ----president—a civilian—controls the entire American military. Civilian control of the military has been a cornerstone of the United States since its founding.
Important stages of presidential development.
1. Age 35 and a citizen of US born

2. Test the Water: Pre-Candidacy Process
3. Declare Candidacy
4. Fundraise/Campaign
5. Party Primaries, Caucuses, and Delegates
6. Party Conventions
7. General Election Campaign: The Final Candidates
8. Election Day: Winning the Popular and Electoral Votes
What are the characteristics of the "modern presidency"?
Article II of the Constitution lists formal powers for the president
informal powers, or the powers to persuade others to follow his lead, derive in part from his use of the visibility and prestige of the office itself
implied powers, which are assumed as granted under the Constitution although not explicitly listed, stem from a president's responsibilities during times of national emergency
What is the EOP?
Executive Office of President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

from communicating the President's message to promoting our trade interests abroad.

Overseen by the White House Chief of Staff

• Council of Economic Advisers
• Council on Environmental Quality
• Executive Residence
• National Security Staff
• Office of Administration
• Office of Management and Budget
• Office of National Drug Control Policy
• Office of Science and Technology Policy
• Office of the United States Trade Representative
• Office of the Vice President
• White House Office
What is the cabinet?
President's chief advisors.

They are the heads of the executive departments.

All SECRETARY of _____
Except ATTORNEY GENERAL
Roles of the White House Staff

Which is more important to presidential decision-making?
political offices, policy offices, and support services

Cabinet Secretaries today are more managers of one of the many divisions of the Executive Branch than they are front line advisers to the President.
How has Congress tried to influence presidential war making?
Presidents are systematically less likely to exercise military force when their partisan opponents retain control of Congress.
Congressional influence is often achieved not through bold legislative action but through public posturing--engaging the media, raising public concerns, and stirring domestic and international doubt about the United States' resolve to see a fight through to the end.
What are the benefits of the Electoral College?
•contributes to the cohesiveness of the country by requiring a distribution of popular support to be elected president

•enhances the status of minority interests,

•contributes to the political stability of the nation by encouraging a two-party system, and

•maintains a federal system of government and representation.
What is bureaucracy?
organizing a lot of people to work together
Why did the federal bureaucracy grow in the 20th Century?
In reaction to the excesses of Gilded Age millionaires, Americans demanded govt regulate business and industry. Independent regulatory commissions emerged @ 20th century.

1st agency - Interstate Commerce Commission, set up in 1887 to monitor abuses railroad.

Reform movements demanded regulation of child labor, food processing and packaging, and working and living conditions for the laborers.
What is the difference between the patronage and civil service systems?
How to get a govt job (Jefferson promote your own people) now...if you want a govt job, you take a test and your score determines your job
How does the Electoral College (EC) work?
When you vote for the President of the United States you are actually voting for the ELECTORS from your state to choose the president.

EC is a body of electors chosen to cast direct vote for president.

Each state has as many votes at it does Representatives and Senator
What are the "bureaucratic pathologies" from class?
...
Sec of State
Foreign affairs - how we get along -CLINTON
Sec of Treasury
money/finances - GEITNER
Sec of Defense
Army, Navy, AF, Marines - Armed forces - GATES
Attorney General
Lawyer - HOLDER
Sec of Interior
Parks and Rec - SALAZAR
Sec of Agriculture
Safe food - VILSACK
SEC COMMERCE
BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY - BUYING/SELLING GOODS
SEC OF LABOR
UNIONS AND WORKPLACE - SOLIS
SEC OF HEALTH & HUMAN SVCS
HEALTH - SEBLIUS
SEC OF TRANSPORTATION
PUBLIC TRANSPORT - PLANE TRAIN AUTO
SEC OF ENERGY
ENERGY - ELECTRICITY AND FUELS - CHU
SEC OF HOUSING & URBAN
AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND CITY PLANNING - DONOVAN
SEC EDUCATION
SCHOOLS & TEACHING - DUNCAN
SEC VA
VETERANS AND HEALTH CARE FOR VETS - SHINSEKI
SEC HOMELAND SECURITY
HOMELAND SAFETY & TERRORISM - NAPOLITANO, JANET
filabuster
Senate only - talk a bill to death due to rule they can speak as long as they wish
unanimous consent rule
Senate only - LIMITS DEBATE and speeds things
Role of the 15 Cabinet
Appointed by the president to carry out administrative policies of the president

Secretary of ___________ x 14
Attorney General x 1
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